Three Star Nitrox Diver

(ISO 14153-3, CMAS 3 Star Diver, RSTC Recreational Dive Supervisor)

(ISO 11107)

Chapter 2

 

Standard

  1. Aim of the training programme

1.1 This training programme aims at introducing the fundamentals of dive leadership to experienced

certified PTRD Two Star Divers, which will enable them to plan, organize and conduct their dives

and lead other sport divers in open water, to a maximum recommended depth of PpO2=1,4bar +

deep national regulation, meters in a safe and competent manner.

 

  1. Classification

2.1 The PTRD Three Star Sport Diver Training Programme is classified as an entry-level leadership

diver training programme.

 

  1. Instructor and Assistant Requirements

3.1 The PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme may be presented by any PTRD Instructor with

a minimum of a PTRD Two Star Instructor grading that complies with the requirements as

prescribed by Clause 2.1.16 of the definitions in Chapter 1.

3.2 The PTRD Two Star Instructor may be assisted by a PTRD One Star Instructor that complies

with the requirements as prescribed by Clause 2.1.16 of the definitions in Chapter 1

 

  1. Competencies of a certified PTRD Three Star Diver

4.1 A PTRD Three Star Diver shall be trained such that, when assessed by a PTRD Instructor, he

shall be deemed to have a professional level knowledge of diving theory, solid rescue skills, dive

management and supervision abilities, exemplary diving skills and sufficient diving experience to

plan, organize and conduct open water diving activities and lead other recreational sport divers in

open water on both guided and organized dives in a safe and competent manner.

In order to lead scuba divers on dives which have more demanding operational parameters a scuba diver at level 3 Star Diver shall have appropriate specialized training and experience. Examples of such dives include:

_ night dives,

_ limited visibility dives,

_ dives in underwater currents (e.g. drift dives),

_ deep dives,

_ wreck dives,

_ dry suit dives.

Where further scuba diving instruction is required, in order to meet the above mentioned competencies, this can only be provided by a suitably qualified scuba instructor.

4.2 A PTRD Three Star Diver is qualified:

4.2.1 To carry out a risk assessment on a suggested dive location and conditions and to

determine its safety:

4.2.2 To conduct any sport diving activities including Stage Stop decompression diving;

4.2.3 To conduct any specialized sport diving activities for which he has received appropriate

training;

4.2.4 To plan and execute emergency procedures appropriate for the diving environment and

activities;

4.2.5 To act as an instructional assistant to a PTRD Instructor by controlling students and

improving safety. The PTRD Three Star Diver is however not qualified to assess or

teach any skills or knowledge to any participant on a PTRD Diver Training Programme.

 

  1. Prerequisites for participation in the training programme

5.1 In order to gain access to the PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme, the

participant shall:

5.1.1 Be at least eighteen (18) years of age; there is no upper limit;

5.1.2 Hold the following PTRD Diver Training or equivalent certifications:

5.1.2.1 PTRD Two Star Diver Training Programme or equivalent.

Students shall have experience of night/limited visibility diving, deep diving (taking into account local environmental conditions), and navigation (as documented in bearer’s log).

5.1.2.2 PTRD Oxygen Administration Training Programme or equivalent (where not

prohibited by legislation)

5.1.2.3 PTRD Rescue Diver Training Programme or equivalent

5.1.3 Submit proof of at least fifty (50) logged open water dives that shall include night

dives, limited visibility dives, deeper dives (between thirty (30) to forty (40) meters),

drift dives, dives in colder water and navigation dives

5.1.4 Effectively demonstrate basic waterman-ship ability by performing, to a PTRD

Instructor, the prescribed physical conditioning and waterman-ship evaluation of the

PTRD Country Partner;

5.1.5 Complete the medical history/statement form required by the PTRD Country Partner prior

to participating in any in-water activities.

Documented evidence shall be obtained that the student has been medically screened as suitable for recreational

diving.

NOTE In some countries and training organizations a medical examination is mandatory.

Students shall be advised of the importance of appropriate regular scuba diving medical examinations.

5.1.6 Sign the appropriate form(s) as required by the PTRD Country Partner acknowledging

and assuming the risks of SCUBA diving prior to participating in any in-water

activities.

Documented evidence shall be obtained that the student has been medically screened as suitable for recreational diving by means of an appropriate questionnaire or medical examination. In any case of doubt, or at the scuba instructor’s discretion, students shall be referred to proper medical resources. If the student is not examined by a physician the student shall be obliged to confirm by signature that he or she has understood written information given by the scuba instructor on diseases and physical conditions which may pose diving related risks.

Students shall be advised of the importance of appropriate regular medical examinations.

NOTE In some countries and training organizations a medical examination is mandatory.

5.2 The following information shall be made available to the students prior to, or during the first class

meeting.

5.2.1 Information prior to provision of the service

The service provider shall provide the following information to the client.

 contractual issues including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and termination of the contract,

 prerequisites and any qualification requirements in order to obtain the service (e.g. medical certification, diver certifications),

 equipment requirements,

 costs,

 insurance requirements in accordance with national regulations,

 local environmental considerations,

 diving related legislation and legal requirements concerned with the specific kind of service.

If the service provided involves training the following additional information shall be provided:

 limitations of eventual qualification,

 scope of the training course,

 course procedures,

 means and methods for assessment, criteria for successful completion,

 that records will be kept of their personal data and these records may be passed on to a training organization.

In the case of guided dives or organized dives the following additional information shall be provided:

 information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions),

 arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size,

 depth and/or time limitations.

5.2.2 Information during service provision

Prior to each dive or training session, clients shall have safety provisions identified to them, including:

 the identity and role of staff,

 emergency procedures,

 buddy/group assignments

 the conduct required of clients.

5.3 Risk Assessment

The service provider shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each dive, and shall adopt

procedures to ensure that all risks are controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be considered as part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:

 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)

 depth,

 underwater visibility,

 pollution,

 entry/exit methods,

 restricted zones,

 suitability of the site for planned activities,

 emergency action plan.

The service provider shall have the right to prevent any client from taking part in the activity if following a risk

assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the client and/or of other clients.

5.4 Emergency equipment and procedures

5.4.1 Emergency equipment

For all locations where diving activities take place the service provider shall ensure the availability of:

 a first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities,

 an emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 liters/min. of pure oxygen for at least

20 min,

 a communication system suitable for alerting emergency services.

5.4.2 Emergency procedures

At each dive site where diving activities take place a documented emergency plan comprising at least the following information shall be available:

 procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation,

 use of the emergency oxygen supply,

 information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the availability of a hyperbaric

recompression chamber).

 

  1. Requirements for certification

6.1 In order to be certified as a PTRD Three Star Diver, the student shall:

6.1.1 Comply with all the prerequisites for participation in the training programme as

prescribed by Clause 5 of this Standard;

6.1.2 Successfully complete the theoretical assessment as provided for in Clause 10.1 of

this Standard;

6.1.3 Successfully complete the fifty (50) meter open water training dives and the open

water assessment that shall be conducted during such dives, as provided for in

Clause 10.2 of this Standard.

 

  1. Required theoretical knowledge and diving skills

7.1 The participant shall receive tuition in the theoretical knowledge and diving skills as prescribed in

Standard 3.7 of Chapter 3.

 

  1. Theoretical training parameters

8.1 The PTRD Instructor shall conform to the standard theoretical training parameters as

prescribed in Clause 4.5 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Practical training parameters

9.1 The PTRD Instructor shall conform to the standard practical training parameters as

prescribed in Clause 4.6 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Assessment

10.1 Knowledge

10.1.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the PTRD Instructor knowledge of SCUBA

diving by taking and passing an oral or written examination. This examination shall

test advanced diving and leadership theoretical knowledge as prescribed in Standard of Chapter 3.

10.2 No confined water required for this grade Open water SCUBA skills

10.2.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the PTRD Instructor his mastery of the open

water SCUBA skills, as prescribed in Clause 2.2 of Chapter 3, during the four (5) open water assessment dives.

 

  1. Certification

11.1 Upon successful completion of the training programme the participant shall be

awarded with a PTRD Three Star Diver C-card.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

 

Curriculum

PTRD Three Stars Diver Training Programme

 

Minimum Training Programme Content

 

  1. Required theoretical knowledge

1.1 Subject Area 1: Introduction

1.1.1 The participant shall be provided with all such information, as provided for in Clause 4.2 of

Chapter 1 in order to enable him to take an informed decision about his participation in the

PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme.

1.1.2 The participant shall be provided with the information about the PTRD as provided for in

Clause 4.3 of Chapter 1.

1.2 Subject Area 2: Advanced Diving Knowledge

1.2.1 The participant shall have mastered a professional level of knowledge of diving

theory equal to that of a PTRD Instructor with regard to the following topics:

1.2.1.1 Topic 1: Diving Equipment

1.2.1.1.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of the

purpose, working principles, selection, preparation, use and care of Scuba and

Emergency equipment:

1.2.1.2 Topic 2: The physics of diving

1.2.1.2.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of diving

physics with regard to the following topics:

1.2.1.2.2 The physical world

1.2.1.2.2.1 Matter

1.2.1.2.2.2 The three states of matter

1.2.1.2.3 Gasses in diving

1.2.1.2.3.1 Oxygen

1.2.1.2.3.2 Nitrogen

1.2.1.2.3.3 Carbon dioxide

1.2.1.2.3.4 Carbon monoxide

1.2.1.2.3.5 Water vapour

1.2.1.2.4 Units of measurement

1.2.1.2.5 Humidity

1.2.1.2.6 Energy

1.2.1.2.6.1 Light

1.2.1.2.6.2 Sound

1.2.1.2.6.3 Heat

1.2.1.2.7 Pressure

1.2.1.2.7.1 Atmospheric pressure

1.2.1.2.7.2 Hydrostatic pressure

1.2.1.2.7.3 Gauge pressure

1.2.1.2.7.4 Absolute pressure

1.2.1.2.7.5 Partial pressure (Dalton’s Law)

1.2.1.2.8 Density

1.2.1.2.8.1 Atmospheric density

1.2.1.2.8.2 Hydrostatic density

1.2.1.2.8.3 Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle)

1.2.1.2.9 Gas flow (viscosity)

1.2.1.2.10 Drag, propulsion and trim

1.2.1.2.11 Kinetic theory of gasses

1.2.1.2.11.1 Boyle’s Law

1.2.1.2.11.2 Charles’ Law

1.2.1.2.11.3 The General Gas Law

1.2.1.2.11.4 Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle)

1.2.1.2.12 Gas diffusion

1.2.1.2.12.1 Gasses in liquids

1.2.1.3 Charles’ Law

1.2.1.4 Topic 3: Medical and psychological issues related to diving

1.2.1.4.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of the

human anatomy and physiology as well as the causes, signs and symptoms as

well as the first aid treatment of the diving ailments listed below:

1.2.1.4.1.1 Anatomy and physiology

1.2.1.4.1.1.1 The respiratory system

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Mechanism of breathing

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.2 Gas exchange

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.3 Control of respiration

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.4 Blood

1.2.1.4.1.1.2 The circulatory system

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.1 The heart

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.2 Blood vessels

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.3 Circulatory failure

1.2.1.4.1.1.3 Immersion effects on respiration and circulation

1.2.1.4.1.2 Barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.1 Dental barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.2 Ear barotraumas (middle, external and inner ear)

1.2.1.4.1.2.3 Facial barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.4 Sinus barotraumas

1.2.1.4.1.2.5 Pulmonary barotraumas including emphysema, pneumothorax arterial gas embolism

1.2.1.4.1.2.6 Gastrointestinal barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.3 Toxic gas effects

1.2.1.4.1.3.1 Nitrogen narcosis

1.2.1.4.1.3.2 Carbon dioxide toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.3.3 Carbon monoxide toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.3.4 Oxygen toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.4 Decompression illness

1.2.1.4.1.5 Temperature

1.2.1.4.1.5.1 Hypothermia

1.2.1.4.1.5.2 Hyperthermia

1.2.1.4.1.6 Other conditions

1.2.1.4.1.6.1 Alternobaric vertigo

1.2.1.4.1.6.2 Carotid sinus syndrome

1.2.1.4.1.6.3 Near drowning

1.2.1.4.1.6.4 Saltwater aspiration syndrome

1.2.1.4.1.7 Psychological problems

1.2.1.4.1.7.1 Mental stress

1.2.1.4.1.7.2 Panic

1.2.1.4.1.7.3 Overconfidence

1.2.1.5 Topic 4: The use of diving tables and dive computers

1.2.1.5.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the use of dive

tables including:

1.2.1.5.1.1 Original and current decompression theory

1.2.1.5.1.2 Nitrogen absorption and elimination

1.2.1.5.1.3 Theory of bubble formation and bubble detection

1.2.1.5.1.4 How to determine dive profiles which include Stage-stop decompression

diving for single and repetitive dives.

1.2.1.5.1.5 How to enact the required Stage-stop decompression.

1.2.1.5.1.6 How to use dive tables to properly plan and execute a dive.

1.2.1.5.1.7 Flying after diving.

1.2.1.5.1.8 Computer assisted diving

1.2.1.5.1.9 Factors that increases the chances of decompression sickness

1.2.1.5.1.10 How to prevent decompression sickness

1.2.1.5.1.11 Omitted decompression

1.2.1.6 Topic 5: Dive planning

1.2.1.6.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning the following dive

planning issues:

1.2.1.6.1.1 The factors that affect dive planning

1.2.1.6.1.2 The dive planning process including the determination of the required gas

1.2.1.6.1.2.1 Advance planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.2.2 Short-term planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.2.3 On site-planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.3 Contingency planning

1.2.1.6.1.4 Emergency planning

1.2.1.6.1.5 Communications, both under-water and on the surface.

1.2.1.6.1.6 Recommended safe diving practices

1.2.1.6.1.7 Limitations of diving with no direct access to the surface

1.2.1.7 Topic 6: Diver rescue procedures

1.2.1.7.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the following

diver rescue procedures:

1.2.1.7.1.1 Accident prevention

1.2.1.7.1.2 Rescuer safety

1.2.1.7.1.3 Diver assistance techniques

1.2.1.7.1.4 Buddy rescue techniques including lifting, towing and landing a diving casualty

1.2.1.7.1.5 Lost diver procedures

1.2.1.7.1.6 Search techniques that can be used in an emergency

1.2.1.7.1.7 Rescue breathing and Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

1.2.1.7.1.8 Oxygen first-aid

1.2.1.7.1.9 Emergency procedures and summoning emergency services

1.2.1.8 Topic 7: Underwater navigation

1.2.1.8.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning underwater navigation

including the following topics:

1.2.1.8.1.1 Navigational equipment for divers

1.2.1.8.1.2 The diving compass

1.2.1.8.1.3 Natural navigation

1.2.1.8.1.4 Compass navigation

1.2.1.8.1.5 Combining navigational techniques

1.2.1.9 Topic 8: The diving environment

1.2.1.9.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning the following environmental

issues:

1.2.1.9.1.1 Introduction to marine biology covering “drifters” (i.e. plankton), “swimmers” (i.e. fish) and

“bottom dwellers (i.e. sea fans, hydroids etc.)

1.2.1.9.1.2 Hazardous marine animals

1.2.1.9.1.3 Pollution

1.2.1.9.1.4 Diver impact on the diving environment and ways to minimise diver impact

1.2.1.9.1.5 Conservation and preservation of the diving environment

1.2.1.9.1.6 Diving conditions

1.2.1.9.1.7 Specific fresh water diving conditions

1.2.1.9.1.8 Specific sea water diving conditions

1.2.1.9.2 Tides, waves and surf, and currents

1.2.1.9.3 Orientation to new diving environments

1.3 Subject Area 3: Dive Leadership knowledge

1.3.1 The participant shall have a professional level of knowledge and understanding of the

following dive leadership topics that will allow him to plan, execute and lead other divers

on open water dives in all typical conditions encountered in the local environment, to

plan for and respond to possible emergencies during such dives and to serve as an

instructional assistant to a PTRD Instructor during diver training programmes:

1.3.2 Topic 1: The role of the PTRD Dive Leader

1.3.2.1 Underwater guide

1.3.2.2 Underwater supervisor

1.3.2.3 Out-of-water supervisor

1.3.2.4 Instructional Assistant

1.3.2.5 First responder to emergencies

1.3.2.6 Counsellor to help divers deal with stress

1.3.2.7 Seaman to assist skipper with boat

1.3.2.8 Oceanographer to answer questions of divers about underwater environment

1.3.2.9 Customer relations management expert to ensure divers an enjoyable experience

1.3.3 Topic 2: Diving related legislation and requirements

1.3.3.1 Negligence and liability issues

1.3.3.2 Competencies of PTRD Superviced, One Star and Two Star Divers

1.3.3.3 Other legislation applicable to the country where the training programme is presented

1.3.4 Topic 3: Dive planning duties and responsibilities

1.3.4.1 Familiarization with divers and dive site

1.3.4.2 How to perform a risk assessment

1.3.4.3 How to prepare an emergency plan

1.3.4.4 Information to be conveyed to divers before any guided or organised dive

1.3.5 Topic 4: Dive management and control

1.3.5.1 What is dive management and control?

1.3.5.2 Equipment to assist dive management and control

1.3.5.3 Information to be conveyed to divers before any guided or organised dive

1.3.5.4 The pre-dive briefing

1.3.5.4.1 Dive supervision procedures and techniques

1.3.5.4.2 The dive de-briefing

1.3.5.4.3 Environmental orientation dives

1.3.5.4.4 Boat diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.5 Deep diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.6 Night diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.7 Drift diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.8 Shore diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.9 Cold water diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.10 Limited visibility diving supervision and control

1.3.6 Topic 5: Rescue management

1.3.6.1 What is rescue management?

1.3.6.2 Priorities in a rescue

1.3.6.3 Acting as a Rescue manager in an emergency

1.3.7 Topic 6: Working with a PTRD Instructor as an Instructional Assistant

1.3.7.1 The role, duties and responsibilities of the Instructional Assistant

1.3.7.2 Professionalism and attitude when working with students

1.3.7.3 Information to be provided to students before confined and open water training

1.3.7.4 Requirements when providing equipment to students

1.3.7.5 PTRD One Star Diver skills

1.3.7.6 The demonstration technique

1.3.7.7 Commonly encountered problems during in-water training

1.4 Subject Area 4: Career development

1.4.1 The participant shall be provided with the career development information as

provided for in Clause 4.4 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Required SCUBA skills

No confined water assessment

2.1 Open water skills

2.1.1 All skills mastered during Diver One Star and Diver Two Star courses need to be perfected

and may be examined during the assessment dives

2.1.2 Surface marker buoy skills

2.1.2.1 The participant shall be able to competently demonstrate his mastery in the use of a surface

marker buoy (delayed and permanent).

2.1.3 Deep diving skills

2.1.3.1 The participant shall demonstrate mastery of the techniques involved in planning and

executing dives beyond the depth ranges typical for recreational SCUBA diving in the

local environment. Specifically these techniques shall address the following issues:

2.1.3.1.1 Nitrogen narcosis

2.1.3.1.2 Air consumption and breathing

2.1.3.1.3 Decompression limits

2.1.3.1.4 Proper ascent procedures including in-water stops

2.1.3.1.5 Buoyancy changes

2.1.3.1.6 Use of specific equipment (e.g. emergency breathing gas supply)

2.1.3.1.7 Emergency equipment and procedures

2.1.4 Underwater navigation skills

2.1.4.1 The participant shall demonstrate his mastery of underwater navigation.

2.1.4.2 The participant shall demonstrate his ability to plan, organize and conduct his dives and to

safely lead other recreational scuba divers using both instrument and natural navigation

techniques.

2.1.5 Rescue skills

2.1.5.1 The participant shall demonstrate diver rescue skills by completing at least one open water

rescue. The rescue exercise shall include in the following:

2.1.5.1.1 Recognition of emergency situations (e.g. loss of breathing gas supply, lack of response)

2.1.5.1.2 Basic underwater search techniques

2.1.5.1.3 Controlled casualty recovery from depth

2.1.5.1.4 Effective emergency surface actions

2.1.5.1.5 Casualty recovery from the water

2.1.5.1.6 Emergency situation management including co-ordination with emergency services

2.1.5.1.7 First-Aid treatment and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Students shall complete a  course/courses in First-Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and have a valid qualification or certificate.

2.1.5.1.8 Oxygen Administration. Students shall have completed training in emergency administration of oxygen. This training shall include theoretical instruction of the medical principles involved and practical tuition on the use of an emergency oxygen unit.

2.1.6 Dive leadership skills

2.1.6.1 The participant shall be able to competently demonstrate the following dive leadership skills

in depth ranges and environmental conditions typical to those usually encountered by the

PTRD Three Star Diver:

2.1.6.1.1 Dive planning and preparation that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.1.1 Site selection taking into account dive team capabilities and environmental factors

2.1.6.1.1.2 Risk assessment, emergency plan and equipment preparation

2.1.6.1.1.3 Decompression calculation and consideration of other factors affecting off-gassinge.g.

flying and other changes in altitude, physical activities

2.1.6.1.1.4 Dive limits

2.1.6.1.1.5 Descent and ascent aids (e.g. shot line, emergency breathing gas supply)

2.1.6.1.1.6 Indicating diving operations where required (e.g. by means of A-flag or other signals)

2.1.6.1.2 Dive briefing that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.2.1 Team assignments

2.1.6.1.2.2 Time/depth limits

2.1.6.1.2.3 Problem/emergency procedures

2.1.6.1.2.4 Site/environmental considerations

2.1.6.1.2.5 Communications

2.1.6.1.2.6 Pre-dive equipment preparation

2.1.6.1.3 Dive conduct that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.3.1 Kitting up and pre-dive checks

2.1.6.1.3.2 Entry control

2.1.6.1.3.3 Descent control

2.1.6.1.3.4 Monitoring of time, progress with dive plan, and SCUBA divers’ breathing gas supplies

2.1.6.1.3.5 Awareness of stress levels of SCUBA divers

2.1.6.1.3.6 Identification of under water hazards

2.1.6.1.3.7 Appropriate reaction to problems and emergencies

2.1.6.1.3.8 Underwater navigation

2.1.6.1.3.9 Safe ascent and exit control

2.1.6.1.4 Post-dive proceduresthat will include the following:

2.1.6.1.4.1 Check out procedures

2.1.6.1.4.2 Debriefing

2.1.6.1.4.3 Check decompression calculation and consideration of other factors affecting off-gassing

(e.g. flying and other changes in altitude, physical activities)

2.1.6.1.4.4 Equipment care and post dive maintenance

2.1.6.1.4.5 Recording the dive

 

3 Practical training parameter

An open water dive shall comprise at least the following activities:

_ briefing

_ preparation to dive

_ pre-dive checks

_ entry into water

_ descent procedures

_ under-water activity

_ ascent and surfacing procedures

_ exit from water

_ debriefing

_ post dive procedures

_ recording the dive.

 

4 Assessment

4.1 Knowledge

Students shall demonstrate to a scuba instructor mastery of the knowledge of scuba diving by passing an

examination as prescribed by a training organization. This examination shall test theoretical knowledge according to clause 1 and knowledge of skills according to clause 2 and clause3.

Mastery of a theory topic is defined as being able to demonstrate a detailed understanding of the causes and

effects related to each item and further to demonstrate a complete understanding of all aspects of such topics that are relevant to the conduct of the diving activities as addressed in this European Standard.

4.2 Scuba skills

Students shall demonstrate mastery to a scuba instructor of the scuba skills according to clause 2 and capabilities according to clause 3. Students shall be able to demonstrate skills in group control and supervision of diving activities.

Mastery of practical skills is defined as the ability to consistently perform a skill in a controlled manner with low

levels of personal stress in conditions typical of the local environment.

4.3 Minimum number of open water dives

To be certified as a scuba diver level 3  Star Diver the student shall have logged at least 60 open water dives.

At least 40 of these dives shall have been completed after level  1 Star Diver.

At least 30 open water dives shall include as wide a range of environmental factors as possible to ensure that the student has a wide range of experience. Examples of more demanding environmental factors may be:

_ low visibility (less than 2 m horizontal),

_ currents (more than 0,25 m/s (approx. half a knot)),

_ cold water (less than 10 °C).

If the local environment does not include any such factors, the candidate’s diving experience should be broadened by completing a greater number of dives and/or including dives of greater depth

(e.g. more than 30 m).

 

5 Minimum age for leading:

The minimum age for leading other scuba divers according to clause 4 shall be 18 years.

 

PTRD FOUR STAR DIVER

1 Definition

A three star diver who has attained a higher than average level of knowledge and ability supported by

broad experience. He will be competent to use divers and diving to achieve major tasks or project

objectives.

2 Entry requirements

2.1 Must have held a 3 Star Diver Certificate for at least 2 years.

2.2 Must have been a member of PTRD for at least 5 years.

2.3 Must have carried out at least 100 dives, under varying conditions, since obtaining 3 Star Diver

Certificates.

3 Course content

It is not considered that this level will be reached following a course of fixed content, but rather as the

result of experience acquired over an extended period and incorporating a broad range of conditions and

requirements.

4 Assessment

The diver must be able to prove his capabilities in organizing diving expeditions and other diving activities

with a particular stress on safety and emergency procedures, and by proving his competence in a given

specialized area or in a scientific discipline.

The assessment will be made at a national level by a panel composed of 3 Star Instructors and confirmed

by the responsible National Technical Committee.

Chapter 2

 

Standard

PTRD Three Stars Diver

 

  1. Aim of the training programme

1.1 This training programme aims at introducing the fundamentals of dive leadership to experienced

certified PTRD Two Star Divers, which will enable them to plan, organize and conduct their dives

and lead other sport divers in open water, to a maximum recommended depth of PpO2=1,4b +

deep national regulation, meters in a safe and competent manner.

 

  1. Classification

2.1 The PTRD Three Star Sport Diver Training Programme is classified as an entry-level leadership

diver training programme.

 

  1. Instructor and Assistant Requirements

3.1 The PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme may be presented by any PTRD Instructor with

a minimum of a PTRD Two Star Instructor grading that complies with the requirements as

prescribed by Clause 2.1.16 of the definitions in Chapter 1.

3.2 The PTRD Two Star Instructor may be assisted by a PTRD One Star Instructor that complies

with the requirements as prescribed by Clause 2.1.16 of the definitions in Chapter 1

 

  1. Competencies of a certified PTRD Three Star Diver

4.1 A PTRD Three Star Diver shall be trained such that, when assessed by a PTRD Instructor, he

shall be deemed to have a professional level knowledge of diving theory, solid rescue skills, dive

management and supervision abilities, exemplary diving skills and sufficient diving experience to

plan, organize and conduct open water diving activities and lead other recreational sport divers in

open water on both guided and organized dives in a safe and competent manner.

In order to lead scuba divers on dives which have more demanding operational parameters a scuba diver at level 3 Star Diver shall have appropriate specialized training and experience. Examples of such dives include:

_ night dives,

_ limited visibility dives,

_ dives in underwater currents (e.g. drift dives),

_ deep dives,

_ wreck dives,

_ dry suit dives.

Where further scuba diving instruction is required, in order to meet the above mentioned competencies, this can only be provided by a suitably qualified scuba instructor.

4.2 A PTRD Three Star Diver is qualified:

4.2.1 To carry out a risk assessment on a suggested dive location and conditions and to

determine its safety:

4.2.2 To conduct any sport diving activities including Stage Stop decompression diving;

4.2.3 To conduct any specialized sport diving activities for which he has received appropriate

training;

4.2.4 To plan and execute emergency procedures appropriate for the diving environment and

activities;

4.2.5 To act as an instructional assistant to a PTRD Instructor by controlling students and

improving safety. The PTRD Three Star Diver is however not qualified to assess or

teach any skills or knowledge to any participant on a PTRD Diver Training Programme.

 

  1. Prerequisites for participation in the training programme

5.1 In order to gain access to the PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme, the

participant shall:

5.1.1 Be at least eighteen (18) years of age; there is no upper limit;

5.1.2 Hold the following PTRD Diver Training or equivalent certifications:

5.1.2.1 PTRD Two Star Diver Training Programme or equivalent.

Students shall have experience of night/limited visibility diving, deep diving (taking into account local environmental conditions), and navigation (as documented in bearer’s log).

5.1.2.2 PTRD Oxygen Administration Training Programme or equivalent (where not

prohibited by legislation)

5.1.2.3 PTRD Rescue Diver Training Programme or equivalent

5.1.3 Submit proof of at least fifty (50) logged open water dives that shall include night

dives, limited visibility dives, deeper dives (between thirty (30) to forty (40) meters),

drift dives, dives in colder water and navigation dives

5.1.4 Effectively demonstrate basic waterman-ship ability by performing, to a PTRD

Instructor, the prescribed physical conditioning and waterman-ship evaluation of the

PTRD Country Partner;

5.1.5 Complete the medical history/statement form required by the PTRD Country Partner prior

to participating in any in-water activities.

Documented evidence shall be obtained that the student has been medically screened as suitable for recreational

diving.

NOTE In some countries and training organizations a medical examination is mandatory.

Students shall be advised of the importance of appropriate regular scuba diving medical examinations.

5.1.6 Sign the appropriate form(s) as required by the PTRD Country Partner acknowledging

and assuming the risks of SCUBA diving prior to participating in any in-water

activities.

Documented evidence shall be obtained that the student has been medically screened as suitable for recreational diving by means of an appropriate questionnaire or medical examination. In any case of doubt, or at the scuba instructor’s discretion, students shall be referred to proper medical resources. If the student is not examined by a physician the student shall be obliged to confirm by signature that he or she has understood written information given by the scuba instructor on diseases and physical conditions which may pose diving related risks.

Students shall be advised of the importance of appropriate regular medical examinations.

NOTE In some countries and training organizations a medical examination is mandatory.

5.2 The following information shall be made available to the students prior to, or during the first class

meeting.

5.2.1 Information prior to provision of the service

The service provider shall provide the following information to the client.

 contractual issues including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and termination of the contract,

 prerequisites and any qualification requirements in order to obtain the service (e.g. medical certification, diver certifications),

 equipment requirements,

 costs,

 insurance requirements in accordance with national regulations,

 local environmental considerations,

 diving related legislation and legal requirements concerned with the specific kind of service.

If the service provided involves training the following additional information shall be provided:

 limitations of eventual qualification,

 scope of the training course,

 course procedures,

 means and methods for assessment, criteria for successful completion,

 that records will be kept of their personal data and these records may be passed on to a training organization.

In the case of guided dives or organized dives the following additional information shall be provided:

 information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions),

 arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size,

 depth and/or time limitations.

5.2.2 Information during service provision

Prior to each dive or training session, clients shall have safety provisions identified to them, including:

 the identity and role of staff,

 emergency procedures,

 buddy/group assignments

 the conduct required of clients.

5.3 Risk Assessment

The service provider shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before each dive, and shall adopt

procedures to ensure that all risks are controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be considered as part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:

 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)

 depth,

 underwater visibility,

 pollution,

 entry/exit methods,

 restricted zones,

 suitability of the site for planned activities,

 emergency action plan.

The service provider shall have the right to prevent any client from taking part in the activity if following a risk

assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the client and/or of other clients.

5.4 Emergency equipment and procedures

5.4.1 Emergency equipment

For all locations where diving activities take place the service provider shall ensure the availability of:

 a first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities,

 an emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 liters/min. of pure oxygen for at least

20 min,

 a communication system suitable for alerting emergency services.

5.4.2 Emergency procedures

At each dive site where diving activities take place a documented emergency plan comprising at least the following information shall be available:

 procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation,

 use of the emergency oxygen supply,

 information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the availability of a hyperbaric

recompression chamber).

 

  1. Requirements for certification

6.1 In order to be certified as a PTRD Three Star Diver, the student shall:

6.1.1 Comply with all the prerequisites for participation in the training programme as

prescribed by Clause 5 of this Standard;

6.1.2 Successfully complete the theoretical assessment as provided for in Clause 10.1 of

this Standard;

6.1.3 Successfully complete the fifty (50) meter open water training dives and the open

water assessment that shall be conducted during such dives, as provided for in

Clause 10.2 of this Standard.

 

  1. Required theoretical knowledge and diving skills

7.1 The participant shall receive tuition in the theoretical knowledge and diving skills as prescribed in

Standard 3.7 of Chapter 3.

 

  1. Theoretical training parameters

8.1 The PTRD Instructor shall conform to the standard theoretical training parameters as

prescribed in Clause 4.5 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Practical training parameters

9.1 The PTRD Instructor shall conform to the standard practical training parameters as

prescribed in Clause 4.6 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Assessment

10.1 Knowledge

10.1.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the PTRD Instructor knowledge of SCUBA

diving by taking and passing an oral or written examination. This examination shall

test advanced diving and leadership theoretical knowledge as prescribed in Standard of Chapter 3.

10.2 No confined water required for this grade Open water SCUBA skills

10.2.1 The participant shall demonstrate to the PTRD Instructor his mastery of the open

water SCUBA skills, as prescribed in Clause 2.2 of Chapter 3, during the four (5) open water assessment dives.

 

  1. Certification

11.1 Upon successful completion of the training programme the participant shall be

awarded with a PTRD Three Star Diver C-card.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

 

Curriculum

PTRD Three Stars Diver Training Programme

 

Minimum Training Programme Content

 

  1. Required theoretical knowledge

1.1 Subject Area 1: Introduction

1.1.1 The participant shall be provided with all such information, as provided for in Clause 4.2 of

Chapter 1 in order to enable him to take an informed decision about his participation in the

PTRD Three Star Diver Training Programme.

1.1.2 The participant shall be provided with the information about the PTRD as provided for in

Clause 4.3 of Chapter 1.

1.2 Subject Area 2: Advanced Diving Knowledge

1.2.1 The participant shall have mastered a professional level of knowledge of diving

theory equal to that of a PTRD Instructor with regard to the following topics:

1.2.1.1 Topic 1: Diving Equipment

1.2.1.1.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of the

purpose, working principles, selection, preparation, use and care of Scuba and

Emergency equipment:

1.2.1.2 Topic 2: The physics of diving

1.2.1.2.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of diving

physics with regard to the following topics:

1.2.1.2.2 The physical world

1.2.1.2.2.1 Matter

1.2.1.2.2.2 The three states of matter

1.2.1.2.3 Gasses in diving

1.2.1.2.3.1 Oxygen

1.2.1.2.3.2 Nitrogen

1.2.1.2.3.3 Carbon dioxide

1.2.1.2.3.4 Carbon monoxide

1.2.1.2.3.5 Water vapour

1.2.1.2.4 Units of measurement

1.2.1.2.5 Humidity

1.2.1.2.6 Energy

1.2.1.2.6.1 Light

1.2.1.2.6.2 Sound

1.2.1.2.6.3 Heat

1.2.1.2.7 Pressure

1.2.1.2.7.1 Atmospheric pressure

1.2.1.2.7.2 Hydrostatic pressure

1.2.1.2.7.3 Gauge pressure

1.2.1.2.7.4 Absolute pressure

1.2.1.2.7.5 Partial pressure (Dalton’s Law)

1.2.1.2.8 Density

1.2.1.2.8.1 Atmospheric density

1.2.1.2.8.2 Hydrostatic density

1.2.1.2.8.3 Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle)

1.2.1.2.9 Gas flow (viscosity)

1.2.1.2.10 Drag, propulsion and trim

1.2.1.2.11 Kinetic theory of gasses

1.2.1.2.11.1 Boyle’s Law

1.2.1.2.11.2 Charles’ Law

1.2.1.2.11.3 The General Gas Law

1.2.1.2.11.4 Buoyancy (Archimedes’ Principle)

1.2.1.2.12 Gas diffusion

1.2.1.2.12.1 Gasses in liquids

1.2.1.3 Charles’ Law

1.2.1.4 Topic 3: Medical and psychological issues related to diving

1.2.1.4.1 The participant shall have a sufficient understanding and knowledge of the

human anatomy and physiology as well as the causes, signs and symptoms as

well as the first aid treatment of the diving ailments listed below:

1.2.1.4.1.1 Anatomy and physiology

1.2.1.4.1.1.1 The respiratory system

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Mechanism of breathing

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.2 Gas exchange

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.3 Control of respiration

1.2.1.4.1.1.1.4 Blood

1.2.1.4.1.1.2 The circulatory system

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.1 The heart

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.2 Blood vessels

1.2.1.4.1.1.2.3 Circulatory failure

1.2.1.4.1.1.3 Immersion effects on respiration and circulation

1.2.1.4.1.2 Barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.1 Dental barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.2 Ear barotraumas (middle, external and inner ear)

1.2.1.4.1.2.3 Facial barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.2.4 Sinus barotraumas

1.2.1.4.1.2.5 Pulmonary barotraumas including emphysema, pneumothorax arterial gas embolism

1.2.1.4.1.2.6 Gastrointestinal barotrauma

1.2.1.4.1.3 Toxic gas effects

1.2.1.4.1.3.1 Nitrogen narcosis

1.2.1.4.1.3.2 Carbon dioxide toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.3.3 Carbon monoxide toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.3.4 Oxygen toxicity

1.2.1.4.1.4 Decompression illness

1.2.1.4.1.5 Temperature

1.2.1.4.1.5.1 Hypothermia

1.2.1.4.1.5.2 Hyperthermia

1.2.1.4.1.6 Other conditions

1.2.1.4.1.6.1 Alternobaric vertigo

1.2.1.4.1.6.2 Carotid sinus syndrome

1.2.1.4.1.6.3 Near drowning

1.2.1.4.1.6.4 Saltwater aspiration syndrome

1.2.1.4.1.7 Psychological problems

1.2.1.4.1.7.1 Mental stress

1.2.1.4.1.7.2 Panic

1.2.1.4.1.7.3 Overconfidence

1.2.1.5 Topic 4: The use of diving tables and dive computers

1.2.1.5.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the use of dive

tables including:

1.2.1.5.1.1 Original and current decompression theory

1.2.1.5.1.2 Nitrogen absorption and elimination

1.2.1.5.1.3 Theory of bubble formation and bubble detection

1.2.1.5.1.4 How to determine dive profiles which include Stage-stop decompression

diving for single and repetitive dives.

1.2.1.5.1.5 How to enact the required Stage-stop decompression.

1.2.1.5.1.6 How to use dive tables to properly plan and execute a dive.

1.2.1.5.1.7 Flying after diving.

1.2.1.5.1.8 Computer assisted diving

1.2.1.5.1.9 Factors that increases the chances of decompression sickness

1.2.1.5.1.10 How to prevent decompression sickness

1.2.1.5.1.11 Omitted decompression

1.2.1.6 Topic 5: Dive planning

1.2.1.6.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning the following dive

planning issues:

1.2.1.6.1.1 The factors that affect dive planning

1.2.1.6.1.2 The dive planning process including the determination of the required gas

1.2.1.6.1.2.1 Advance planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.2.2 Short-term planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.2.3 On site-planning and preparation

1.2.1.6.1.3 Contingency planning

1.2.1.6.1.4 Emergency planning

1.2.1.6.1.5 Communications, both under-water and on the surface.

1.2.1.6.1.6 Recommended safe diving practices

1.2.1.6.1.7 Limitations of diving with no direct access to the surface

1.2.1.7 Topic 6: Diver rescue procedures

1.2.1.7.1 The participant shall have an appropriate knowledge concerning the following

diver rescue procedures:

1.2.1.7.1.1 Accident prevention

1.2.1.7.1.2 Rescuer safety

1.2.1.7.1.3 Diver assistance techniques

1.2.1.7.1.4 Buddy rescue techniques including lifting, towing and landing a diving casualty

1.2.1.7.1.5 Lost diver procedures

1.2.1.7.1.6 Search techniques that can be used in an emergency

1.2.1.7.1.7 Rescue breathing and Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

1.2.1.7.1.8 Oxygen first-aid

1.2.1.7.1.9 Emergency procedures and summoning emergency services

1.2.1.8 Topic 7: Underwater navigation

1.2.1.8.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning underwater navigation

including the following topics:

1.2.1.8.1.1 Navigational equipment for divers

1.2.1.8.1.2 The diving compass

1.2.1.8.1.3 Natural navigation

1.2.1.8.1.4 Compass navigation

1.2.1.8.1.5 Combining navigational techniques

1.2.1.9 Topic 8: The diving environment

1.2.1.9.1 The participant shall have appropriate knowledge concerning the following environmental

issues:

1.2.1.9.1.1 Introduction to marine biology covering “drifters” (i.e. plankton), “swimmers” (i.e. fish) and

“bottom dwellers (i.e. sea fans, hydroids etc.)

1.2.1.9.1.2 Hazardous marine animals

1.2.1.9.1.3 Pollution

1.2.1.9.1.4 Diver impact on the diving environment and ways to minimise diver impact

1.2.1.9.1.5 Conservation and preservation of the diving environment

1.2.1.9.1.6 Diving conditions

1.2.1.9.1.7 Specific fresh water diving conditions

1.2.1.9.1.8 Specific sea water diving conditions

1.2.1.9.2 Tides, waves and surf, and currents

1.2.1.9.3 Orientation to new diving environments

1.3 Subject Area 3: Dive Leadership knowledge

1.3.1 The participant shall have a professional level of knowledge and understanding of the

following dive leadership topics that will allow him to plan, execute and lead other divers

on open water dives in all typical conditions encountered in the local environment, to

plan for and respond to possible emergencies during such dives and to serve as an

instructional assistant to a PTRD Instructor during diver training programmes:

1.3.2 Topic 1: The role of the PTRD Dive Leader

1.3.2.1 Underwater guide

1.3.2.2 Underwater supervisor

1.3.2.3 Out-of-water supervisor

1.3.2.4 Instructional Assistant

1.3.2.5 First responder to emergencies

1.3.2.6 Counsellor to help divers deal with stress

1.3.2.7 Seaman to assist skipper with boat

1.3.2.8 Oceanographer to answer questions of divers about underwater environment

1.3.2.9 Customer relations management expert to ensure divers an enjoyable experience

1.3.3 Topic 2: Diving related legislation and requirements

1.3.3.1 Negligence and liability issues

1.3.3.2 Competencies of PTRD Superviced, One Star and Two Star Divers

1.3.3.3 Other legislation applicable to the country where the training programme is presented

1.3.4 Topic 3: Dive planning duties and responsibilities

1.3.4.1 Familiarization with divers and dive site

1.3.4.2 How to perform a risk assessment

1.3.4.3 How to prepare an emergency plan

1.3.4.4 Information to be conveyed to divers before any guided or organised dive

1.3.5 Topic 4: Dive management and control

1.3.5.1 What is dive management and control?

1.3.5.2 Equipment to assist dive management and control

1.3.5.3 Information to be conveyed to divers before any guided or organised dive

1.3.5.4 The pre-dive briefing

1.3.5.4.1 Dive supervision procedures and techniques

1.3.5.4.2 The dive de-briefing

1.3.5.4.3 Environmental orientation dives

1.3.5.4.4 Boat diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.5 Deep diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.6 Night diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.7 Drift diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.8 Shore diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.9 Cold water diving supervision and control

1.3.5.4.10 Limited visibility diving supervision and control

1.3.6 Topic 5: Rescue management

1.3.6.1 What is rescue management?

1.3.6.2 Priorities in a rescue

1.3.6.3 Acting as a Rescue manager in an emergency

1.3.7 Topic 6: Working with a PTRD Instructor as an Instructional Assistant

1.3.7.1 The role, duties and responsibilities of the Instructional Assistant

1.3.7.2 Professionalism and attitude when working with students

1.3.7.3 Information to be provided to students before confined and open water training

1.3.7.4 Requirements when providing equipment to students

1.3.7.5 PTRD One Star Diver skills

1.3.7.6 The demonstration technique

1.3.7.7 Commonly encountered problems during in-water training

1.4 Subject Area 4: Career development

1.4.1 The participant shall be provided with the career development information as

provided for in Clause 4.4 of Chapter 1.

 

  1. Required SCUBA skills

No confined water assessment

2.1 Open water skills

2.1.1 All skills mastered during Diver One Star and Diver Two Star courses need to be perfected

and may be examined during the assessment dives

2.1.2 Surface marker buoy skills

2.1.2.1 The participant shall be able to competently demonstrate his mastery in the use of a surface

marker buoy (delayed and permanent).

2.1.3 Deep diving skills

2.1.3.1 The participant shall demonstrate mastery of the techniques involved in planning and

executing dives beyond the depth ranges typical for recreational SCUBA diving in the

local environment. Specifically these techniques shall address the following issues:

2.1.3.1.1 Nitrogen narcosis

2.1.3.1.2 Air consumption and breathing

2.1.3.1.3 Decompression limits

2.1.3.1.4 Proper ascent procedures including in-water stops

2.1.3.1.5 Buoyancy changes

2.1.3.1.6 Use of specific equipment (e.g. emergency breathing gas supply)

2.1.3.1.7 Emergency equipment and procedures

2.1.4 Underwater navigation skills

2.1.4.1 The participant shall demonstrate his mastery of underwater navigation.

2.1.4.2 The participant shall demonstrate his ability to plan, organize and conduct his dives and to

safely lead other recreational scuba divers using both instrument and natural navigation

techniques.

2.1.5 Rescue skills

2.1.5.1 The participant shall demonstrate diver rescue skills by completing at least one open water

rescue. The rescue exercise shall include in the following:

2.1.5.1.1 Recognition of emergency situations (e.g. loss of breathing gas supply, lack of response)

2.1.5.1.2 Basic underwater search techniques

2.1.5.1.3 Controlled casualty recovery from depth

2.1.5.1.4 Effective emergency surface actions

2.1.5.1.5 Casualty recovery from the water

2.1.5.1.6 Emergency situation management including co-ordination with emergency services

2.1.5.1.7 First-Aid treatment and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Students shall complete a  course/courses in First-Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and have a valid qualification or certificate.

2.1.5.1.8 Oxygen Administration. Students shall have completed training in emergency administration of oxygen. This training shall include theoretical instruction of the medical principles involved and practical tuition on the use of an emergency oxygen unit.

2.1.6 Dive leadership skills

2.1.6.1 The participant shall be able to competently demonstrate the following dive leadership skills

in depth ranges and environmental conditions typical to those usually encountered by the

PTRD Three Star Diver:

2.1.6.1.1 Dive planning and preparation that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.1.1 Site selection taking into account dive team capabilities and environmental factors

2.1.6.1.1.2 Risk assessment, emergency plan and equipment preparation

2.1.6.1.1.3 Decompression calculation and consideration of other factors affecting off-gassinge.g.

flying and other changes in altitude, physical activities

2.1.6.1.1.4 Dive limits

2.1.6.1.1.5 Descent and ascent aids (e.g. shot line, emergency breathing gas supply)

2.1.6.1.1.6 Indicating diving operations where required (e.g. by means of A-flag or other signals)

2.1.6.1.2 Dive briefing that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.2.1 Team assignments

2.1.6.1.2.2 Time/depth limits

2.1.6.1.2.3 Problem/emergency procedures

2.1.6.1.2.4 Site/environmental considerations

2.1.6.1.2.5 Communications

2.1.6.1.2.6 Pre-dive equipment preparation

2.1.6.1.3 Dive conduct that will include the following:

2.1.6.1.3.1 Kitting up and pre-dive checks

2.1.6.1.3.2 Entry control

2.1.6.1.3.3 Descent control

2.1.6.1.3.4 Monitoring of time, progress with dive plan, and SCUBA divers’ breathing gas supplies

2.1.6.1.3.5 Awareness of stress levels of SCUBA divers

2.1.6.1.3.6 Identification of under water hazards

2.1.6.1.3.7 Appropriate reaction to problems and emergencies

2.1.6.1.3.8 Underwater navigation

2.1.6.1.3.9 Safe ascent and exit control

2.1.6.1.4 Post-dive proceduresthat will include the following:

2.1.6.1.4.1 Check out procedures

2.1.6.1.4.2 Debriefing

2.1.6.1.4.3 Check decompression calculation and consideration of other factors affecting off-gassing

(e.g. flying and other changes in altitude, physical activities)

2.1.6.1.4.4 Equipment care and post dive maintenance

2.1.6.1.4.5 Recording the dive

 

3 Practical training parameter

An open water dive shall comprise at least the following activities:

_ briefing

_ preparation to dive

_ pre-dive checks

_ entry into water

_ descent procedures

_ under-water activity

_ ascent and surfacing procedures

_ exit from water

_ debriefing

_ post dive procedures

_ recording the dive.

 

4 Assessment

4.1 Knowledge

Students shall demonstrate to a scuba instructor mastery of the knowledge of scuba diving by passing an

examination as prescribed by a training organization. This examination shall test theoretical knowledge according to clause 1 and knowledge of skills according to clause 2 and clause3.

Mastery of a theory topic is defined as being able to demonstrate a detailed understanding of the causes and

effects related to each item and further to demonstrate a complete understanding of all aspects of such topics that are relevant to the conduct of the diving activities as addressed in this European Standard.

4.2 Scuba skills

Students shall demonstrate mastery to a scuba instructor of the scuba skills according to clause 2 and capabilities according to clause 3. Students shall be able to demonstrate skills in group control and supervision of diving activities.

Mastery of practical skills is defined as the ability to consistently perform a skill in a controlled manner with low

levels of personal stress in conditions typical of the local environment.

4.3 Minimum number of open water dives

To be certified as a scuba diver level 3  Star Diver the student shall have logged at least 60 open water dives.

At least 40 of these dives shall have been completed after level  1 Star Diver.

At least 30 open water dives shall include as wide a range of environmental factors as possible to ensure that the student has a wide range of experience. Examples of more demanding environmental factors may be:

_ low visibility (less than 2 m horizontal),

_ currents (more than 0,25 m/s (approx. half a knot)),

_ cold water (less than 10 °C).

If the local environment does not include any such factors, the candidate’s diving experience should be broadened by completing a greater number of dives and/or including dives of greater depth

(e.g. more than 30 m).

 

5 Minimum age for leading:

The minimum age for leading other scuba divers according to clause 4 shall be 18 years.

 

 

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