General Standards and Procedures

1. The PTRD International Diver Training Certification System
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 The PTRD has developed a PTRD International Diver Training Certification System that
consists of Diver, Speciality Diver, Technical Diver and Leadership Diver Training Standards and which allows divers,that have been trained in accordance with the prescribed PTRD International Diver Training Standards, to have their certifications recognised throughout the world in countries that are members of the PTRD family of divers.
1.1.2 A diver can obtain a PTRD International Diver Training Certificate by means of either of the following:
1.1.2.1 By attending a PTRD Diver Training Programme of a PTRD Country Partner, that is presented by a PTRD Instructor that is duly authorised to present the training programme on behalf of the specific PTRD Country Partner, provided that the PTRD Country Partner is a member in good standing with the PTRD International Technical Committee and provided that such training programme has been recognised by PTRD International as equivalent to the PTRD International Diver
Training Standard for that specific training programme.
1.1.2.2 By attending a PTRD Diver Training Programme of a PDC(PTRD dive center), that is presented by a PTRD Instructor that is duly authorised to present the training programme on behalf of the specific PDC, provided that the PDC is a member in good standing with the PTRD International Technical Committee and provided that such training programme has been recognised by PTRD International as equivalent to the PTRD International Diver Training Standard for that specific training programme.
1.2 Aim of the PTRD International Diver Training Certification System
1.2.1 The PTRD International Diver Training Certification System aims at providing international recognition for all PTRD Diver Training Certifications by clearly stating, in the prescribed PTRD Diver Training Standards, the level of competence and experience required from a diver before a specific level of PTRD certification will be issued to him by PTRD International. This means that the system is intended to provide international recognition of an individual diver’s level of competence and experience, irrespective of where he was trained in the world, allowing him to dive all over the world with his PTRD International C-card.
1.2.2 All PTRD Country Partner or PDC’s are compelled to recognise a diver’s PTRD International Certification allowing the diver to dive within the parameters of his PTRD International Certification and allowing him to gain access to more advanced PTRD Diver Training Programmes based on his PTRD International Certification.
1.3 Format used for PTRD International Diver Training Certificates
1.3.1 PTRD International produces a double sided plastic Certification Card, referred to as a “C-card” for every Diver Training Programme included in this PTRD InternationalDiver Training Standards and Procedures Manual that serves as proof that the card holder has been assessed by a PTRD Instructor and that he has achieved the desired level of competence as coupled to the specific level of certification as prescribed by the relevant PTRD Standard.
1.3.2 The front side of the C-card is reserved for use by PTRD International and contains the following information:
1.3.2.1 A PTRD logo; and
1.3.2.2 The PTRD web
1.3.3 The serial number of the C-card
1.3.3.1 The reverse side of the C-card is for use by the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC and shall include the following:
1.3.3.2 The Surname and Names of the card holder;
1.3.3.3 The serial number of the C-card;
1.3.3.4 The photo of the C-card holder; and
1.3.3.5 The Name and the indentification number of the Instructor.
1.3.3.6 Date of the C-card was issued and Certification level diver.
1.4 Procedure for obtaining equivalent PTRD International grades for national certifications
1.4.1 Any PTRD Country Partner or PDC that wishes to obtain PTRD International recognition for their certifications shall comply to the following:
1.4.1.1 The Country Partner or the PDC must be affiliated to the PTRD Technical Committee;
1.4.1.2 The Country Partner or the PDC must submit their Diver Training Standards as may be prescribed by the PTRD International Technical Committee for the PTRD Diver Training Programmes for which they seek PTRD International equivalence to the PTRD International Technical Committee for evaluation, or alternatively, they may undertake in writing to conform to the PTRD International Diver Training Standards as prescribed by this PTRD International Diver Training Standards and Procedures Manual;
1.4.1.3 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will submit any other information or documentation as may be required by the PTRD International Technical Committee, to complete the evaluation, to the PTRD International Technical Committee upon request by the last mentioned;
1.4.1.4 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will make all such amendments to its Diver Training Standards as requested by the PTRD International Technical Committee ; and
1.4.1.5 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will, if so desired by the PTRD International Technical Committee, allow a member of the PTRD International Technical Committee or a suitably qualified person appointed by them, to observe the presentation of the diver training programmes for which the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC seeks PTRD International equivalence from PTRD international.
1.4.2 Once the PTRD International Technical Committee has evaluated the PTRD Country Partner’s or the PDC’s Diver Training Standard for which it has applied for equivalence, the PTRD International Technical Committee will make a recommendation to the PTRD International Board of Directors as to the granting of equivalence or not to the PTRD Diver Training Standard of the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC.
1.4.3 The Secretary General will inform the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC in writing of the decision of the PTRD International Board of Directors.
1.4.4 Once equivalence has been awarded to a PTRD Country Partner or the PDC for a specific PTRD Diver Training Programme:
1.4.4.1 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC is required to make all such amendments to its Diver Training Standard as may be prescribed by the PTRD International Technical Committee; and
1.4.4.2 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC is compelled to issue the prescribed PTRD International Ccard for the PTRD Diver Training Programmes for equivalence which was granted.
1.5 Procedure for the issuing PTRD International Diver Training Certifications
1.5.1 All Ptrd C-cards have to be ordered from the PTRD International Head Office. The C-cards can be ordered by any affiliated PTRD Country Partner or PDC.
1.5.2 It is the responsibility of the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC to print all the personal information of the card holderon the C-card.
1.5.3 All PTRD Country Partner and PDC’s are obliged to annually send a list containing the following information of all the C-cards issued during the year to the PTRD International Head Office:
1.5.3.1 Surname of card holder
1.5.3.2 Full names of card holder
1.5.3.3 Nationality of card holder
1.5.3.4 Passport or Identity Card number of card holder
1.5.3.5 PTRD number for the C-card
1.6 PTRD Certification Card Numbering System
1.6.1 The following numbering system shall be used on all PTRD C-cards:
1.6.1.1 “ XX/YYY/Z/888888”
1.6.2 The meaning of the numbering system is as follows:
1.6.2.1 “ XX” shall be used to indicate the ISO Country Code of the country of the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC where the C-card was issued;
1.6.2.2 “YYY” shall be used to indicate the Country Code;
1.6.2.3 “Z” shall be used to indicate the letter of serial group, start with “A”; and
1.6.2.4 “888888” shall be used to indicate the unique six digit sequential C-card number for the specific serial of certification issued (It is mandatory that the sequential number starts at 000001).
1.6.3 The following will serve as examples of the prescribed numbering system:
1.6.3.1 “SZ/248/A/000025” which means that it is the 25th C-card of the “A” serial issued by the Seychelles
Country Partner; and
1.6.3.2 “IT/039/G/000169” which means that it is the 169th C-card of the “G” serial issued by the Italian Country Partner
1.7 Term of validity of PTRD International Diving Certificates
1.7.1 The period of validity of a PTRD International C-card issued by a PTRD Country Partner or PDC shall be equal to that of the equal national certification issued by the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC unless specifically prescribed by a PTRD International Diver Training Standard, in which case the last mentioned term of validity shall be applicable.
1.7.2 The term of validity of all PTRD International Instructor C-cards is five (5) years from date of issue.
1.8 Prohibition on the issuing of C-cards other than PTRD International C-cards
1.8.1 No PTRD Country Partner or PDC is allowed to produce its own C-cards for any PTRD Diver Training Programme offered and regulated by PTRD International. This means that all PTRD Country Partner and PDC’s are compelled to issue the prescribed PTRD International C-cards that exist for PTRD Diver Training Programmes.
1.8.2 Any Diver Training C-card of a PTRD Country Partner or PDC that is not printed on an official double sided PTRD International C-card shall not be recognised by any PTRD Country Partner or PDC as equivalent to a PTRD International double-sided C-card . This means that the level of certification held by such a card holder shall not be regarded as valid and shall not be recognised by any PTRD Country Partner or PDC for the purposes of proof of diver certification or for the advancement to a higher or more advanced level of PTRD diver training.
1.8.3 PTRD International views any C-card that any PTRD Country Partner or PDC produces for any PTRD Diver Training Programme offered and regulated by PTRD international as a counterfeit C-card and reserves the right to institute legal action against any such PTRD Country Partner or PDC that produces such C-cards.
2. Definitions used in PTRD Diver Training
2.1 In these Standards, unless the context indicates otherwise –
2.1.1 “Air” shall mean an appropriate mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, with no less than 20% oxygen, which can be used as a breathing gas for SCUBA diving.
2.1.2 “Altitude” shall mean elevation above sea level.
2.1.3 “Altitude diving” shall mean SCUBA diving where the surface is above sea level. The specific
height above sea level that will be used to determine whether a dive is an altitude dive or not is
determined by the Dive Tables used to plan the dive (e.g. the US Navy Dive Tables regards any
dive in excess of 91 meters above sea level as an altitude dive and the Bühlmann Dive Tables
regard any dive in excess of 700 meters above sea level as an altitude dive).
2.1.4 “Apnoea” shall mean competitive free diving or breath-hold diving in which competitors attempt to
attain great depths, times or distances on a single breath without the assistance of SCUBA
equipment.
2.1.5 “Appropriate forms for the acknowledging and assuming the risk of diving” shall mean, but not be
limited to an Indemnity Form or a Waiver and Release Agreement that informs the participant of a
PTRD Diver Training Programme of the inherent risks of SCUBA diving and which the
participant is required to sign, thereby acknowledging and assuming those risks and which
indemnifies the PTRD Instructor, his Assistants, the Diver Training Facility, the PTRD
Country Partner and PTRD International and their owners/managers or office bearers from any
claims which may arise from any person if an accident should befall the participant. No in-water
instruction shall be provided to a participant without first having secured a release signed by the
participant or by the parent(s) and/or legal guardian(s) of a minor. Each PTRD Country Partner is
required to draft their own Indemnity Forms and/or Waiver and Release Agreements relevant to
the specific PTRD Diver Training Programmes they present.
2.1.6 “Assessment of a diving casualty” shall mean the primary and secondary assessment of the
diving casualty.
2.1.7 “Assisted ascent” shall include the controlled buoyant lifting technique from behind, the
controlled buoyant lifting technique from the front and the tethered buoyant lifting technique.
2.1.8 “Breathing gas” shall mean a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen with no less than 20%
oxygen that is normally referred to as “air”.
2.1.9 “Bottom gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinder(s) intended
to be used in the bottom time phase of a dive.
2.1.10 “Briefing” shall mean a short pre-dive discussion between a PTRD Instructor and the
participants or between a Ptrd Dive Leader and the qualified divers he is going to
lead/supervise on a dive, including but not limited to the procedures to be followed
during a dive (i.e. team assignments, entry, descent, ascent, surfacing, and exit
procedures, time and depth limits during the dive, contingency and emergency
procedures), site and/or environmental considerations, communication, pre-dive
equipment preparation, skills to be practised/demonstrated/assessed (in the case of
training) and post-dive procedures.
2.1.11 “Cave diving” shall mean a penetration into a naturally occurring rock environment
with a restricted vertical ascent beyond the cavern zone.
2.1.12 “Cavern diving” shall mean diving in the area in an underwater cave that is illuminated
in part by natural sunlight and from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible.
2.1.13 “CCR” shall mean Closed-Circuit Rebreather.
2.1.14 “PDC” shall mean a PTRD Diving Centre that is registered with the PTRD International
Technical Committee and that is in good standing with PTRD International.
2.1.15 “Certification” shall mean a PTRD Certification Card (“C-Card”) documenting that a
participant has completed all requirements of a specific PTRD Diver Training
Programme. This verification is issued by PTRD International, the National
Country Partneror the PDC upon receipt of an instructor’s written confirmation of satisfactory
completion of all training programme requirements by the participant, as documented in
the participant’s Personal Log Book/Training Record.
2.1.16 “PTRD Leadership Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and
sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach one
or more PTRD Leadership Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of
PTRD Dive Leader and/or PTRD Instructor certification.
2.1.17 “PTRD Snorkel Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified
as a PTRD Three Star Snorkel Diver and who is sanctioned by PTRD International and/or
his National Country Partner or PDC to lead guided and organised open water dives and to
assist a PTRD Instructor during confined and open water training.
2.1.18 “PTRD Snorkel Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified
and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach
one or more PTRD Snorkel Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance
of PTRD Snorkel Diver certification
2.1.19 “PTRD Speciality Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified
and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach
one or more PTRD Speciality Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the
issuance of PTRD Speciality Diver certification.
2.1.20 “PTRD Sport Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and
sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach one
or more PTRD Sport Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of
PTRD Snorkel Diver and PTRD Sport Diver certification.
2.1.21 “PTRD Sport Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified as a
PTRD Three Star Diver and who is sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National
Country Partner or PDC to lead guided and organised open water dives and to assist a
PTRD Instructor during confined and open water training.
2.1.22 “PTRD Technical Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified
and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach
one or more PTRD Technical Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the
issuance of PTRD Technical Diver certification.
2.1.23 “PTRD National Country Partner” shall mean a National Country Partner that is a member of the
PTRD International Technical Committee and that is in good standing with PTRD
International.
2.1.24 “Competencies” shall mean a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes
performed to a specific standard under specific conditions.
2.1.25 “Computer Generated Dive Tables” shall mean desktop decompression profiles
generated by various computer software programmes. Each PTRD Country Partner is
allowed to select the software they want to use for instruction and diving.
2.1.26 “Confined water” shall mean a swimming pool with a depth appropriate to the activity
or any body of water that offers conditions similar to those of a swimming pool with
regard to visibility, depth, water movement and access.
2.1.27 “Debriefing” shall mean a short post-dive discussion between a PTRD Instructor and
the participants or between a PTRD Dive Leader and the qualified divers he supervised
on a dive, including but not limited to, comments on the dive and further directions to
enhance performance, for repetitive dives etc.
2.1.28 “Decompression gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders
used during the ascent phase (decompression) phase of a dive.
2.1.29 “Decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that requires a mandatory in-water
decompression stop.
2.1.30 “Disabled” shall mean a person with a physical impairment which limits his physical
functioning.
2.1.31 “Dive management” shall mean all actions and measures necessary to ensure the safe
conduct of diving activities, including:
– planning
– emergency procedures
– briefing
– conduct and control
– de-briefing
2.1.32 “Dive Table(s)” shall mean a numerical table(s) used by SCUBA divers to determine
time limits of dives, according to depth, as well as possible decompression delays
during ascent and requisite surface intervals between dives. Each PTRD Country Partner is
allowed to select the Dive Tables they want to use for instruction and diving.
2.1.33 “DSMB” shall mean a delayed surface marker buoy (i.e.an inflatable buoy that can be
deployed from depth to provide a warning to surface users and their cover boat that they are
ascending or require assistance).
2.1.34 “Emergency-signalling device” shall mean a device suitable for the venue in which
open water diving is performed which can be used to attract the attention of the surface
party or a search party if the diver or dive group become separated from the dive boat
or surface party such as a BC integrated emergency horn, signalling mirror, safety
sausage etc. or during any other emergency.
2.1.35 “END” shall mean Equivalent Narcotic Depth.
2.1.36 “Enriched Air Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen
and oxygen, used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air. It
is also commonly referred to as “Nitrox”.
2.1.37 “Guided dive” shall mean an organised open water dive where certified divers are
accompanied in and/or underwater by either a PTRD Dive Leader or a PTRD Instructor.
2.1.38 “Introductory SCUBA dive” shall mean an open water SCUBA dive made under the
direct supervision of a PTRD Instructor to introduce the participant to sport diving.
2.1.39 “Instructional Assistant” shall mean a PTRD Dive Leader.
2.1.40 “Knowledge” shall mean the specific information required for the participant to develop
the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of diving tasks/duties.
2.1.41 “Leadership diving” shall include but not be limited to any activity where a PTRD
Instructor is required to instruct participants on a PTRD Diver Training Programme or
where a certified assistant assists a PTRD Instructor on a PTRD Diver Training
Programme or where a PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive Leader oversees and/or
supervises certified divers on guided or organised dives.
2.1.42 “Minimum instructional sport diving system” shall mean the equipment required to
be worn by the PTRD Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the
skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the PTRD Diver and
Speciality Diver Training Programmes included in this Manual. This equipment
includes, as a minimum, the following:
– mask
– snorkel
– fins
– exposure suit (if appropriate)
– quick release weighting system
– cylinder and valve
– cylinder-support system
– buoyancy control device with low-pressure inflator system
– regulator
– alternate air source (could range from a simple octopus system to a duplicate
breathing system with a separate breathing gas system)
– submersible pressure gauge
– timing device
– depth gauge
– cutting device (if not prohibited by legislation)
– emergency signalling device (acoustical, optical)
2.1.43 “Minimum instructional snorkel diving system” shall mean the equipment required
to be worn by the PTRD Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the
skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the PTRD Snorkel
Diver Training Programmes and shall include the following:
– fins
– mask
– snorkel
– personal flotation device (if appropriate, e.g. snorkelling vest)
– a quick release weight system (if appropriate)
– exposure suit (if appropriate)
2.1.44 “Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen,
used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air.
2.1.45 “No-decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that does not require a mandatory
in-water decompression stop.
2.1.46 “NormoxicTrimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and
nitrogen, used for a deep and/or technical diving and having an oxygen content of at
least 18 percent.
2.1.47 “Openwater” shall mean anybody of water significantly larger than a swimming pool
offering conditions typical of a natural body of water encountered in the region.
2.1.48 “Open water training dives” shall mean supervised, open water snorkel/free diving or
SCUBA training experiences to fulfil the certification requirements of a PTRD Diver
Training Programme and shall, as a minimum consist of the following:
– a briefing
– preparation to dive
– pre-dive checks
– an appropriate method of entry into the water
– descent procedures (if applicable)
– in and/or underwater activity of at least the prescribed underwater duration in the
prescribed depth range
– an appropriate method of exit from the water
– a debriefing
– post dive procedures including equipment care
– recording (logging) the dive in student’s Personal Log Book.
2.1.49 “Organised dive” shall mean a service offered by a PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive
Leader, where divers who are already at a qualification and experience level suitable
for the diving activity, are taken to a dive site.
2.1.50 “Out-of-air emergency alternatives” shall meandependent or independentprocedures
allowing a diver to ascend to the surface in the event of an out-of-air situation.
– Dependent procedures include: octopus breathing; buddy breathing; redundant air supply
(provided by buddy)
– Independent procedures include: emergency ascent; redundant air supply.
2.1.51 “Overhead environment” shall mean any dive site that has a physical ceiling, such as
the inside of a cave or a wreck, from which a quick and direct escape to the surface
cannot be safely made.
2.1.52 “Participant” shall mean an individual that complies with the prerequisites for
participation in any of the PTRD Diver Training Programmes and who has formally
enrolled on such a diver training programme presented by a PTRD Instructor.
Synonyms for the word “participant” are “student”, “candidate” or “learner”.
2.1.53 “Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” shall mean a swimming and
drown-proofing assessment by the PTRD Instructor in order to determine the
participant’s suitability for participation in a specific PTRD Diver Training Programme,
given the specific physical demands of a specific PTRD Diver Training Programme.
Each PTRD Country Partner is required to draft their own physical conditioning and
watermanship evaluation standards and procedures.
2.1.54 “Pre-dive check” shall mean a check, including but not limited to, gas availability and
suitability for a dive and equipment operating condition. It is normally conducted by the
diver himself and by the dive buddy just before entering the water or in the water just
before the descent.
2.1.55 “Risk assessment” shall mean the identification of hazards and who may be harmed by
them.
2.1.56 “SCUBA” shall mean any diving apparatus that is a self-contained underwater
breathing apparatus.
2.1.57 “Safety swimmer” shall mean a certified diver who holds at least a PTRD Rescue
Diver certification who is equipped in snorkelling equipment and who can come to the
assistance of a participant during any surface training dive/exercise.
2.1.58 “SCR” shall mean Semi-Closed Rebreather.
2.1.59 “Skill” shall mean an ability, learned and acquired through training, to perform actions
that achieve a specific desired outcome.
2.1.60 “Snorkel diving” shall meanthe activity of swimming while typically using a mask,
snorkel and fins, where participants remain at the surface or make occasional breath
hold dives and where buoyancy devices may be used to provide surface support
depending on the environmental conditions and the participants’ abilities.
2.1.61 “Speciality diving” shall mean specialised sport diving activities that require additional
training other than normal sport diver training or specialised sport diver training for
individuals or groups with special needs in order to be conducted safely and/or in a
competent manner and includes, but is not limited to, such activities such as night diving,
wreck diving, limited visibility diving, cavern diving or children diving activities.
2.1.62 “Sport diving” shall mean diving to a depth no greater than 40 meters, using only
compressed air or Nitrox (with no more than 40% oxygen) as a breathing gas, never
requiring a mandatory decompression stop and having direct vertical access to the
surface from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible during an emergency. A
synonym for sport diving is “recreational diving”.
2.1.63 “Supervision” shall mean, as it relates to confined and open water training, the
prescribed level of supervision required by either the PTRD Instructor or PTRD Dive
Leader in order to ensure the safety of the diving activity. The level of supervision
required is prescribed as either direct or indirect supervision, which is defined as follows:
– Direct supervision” shall meanvisual observation and evaluation of participant
skill performance and student diving activities by a PTRD Instructor or PTRD Dive
Leader. Direct supervision requires personal observation and evaluation of the
performance of the skills required for certification. During underwater skill
performance and evaluation, direct supervision requires the student to be
accompanied underwater.
– “Indirect supervision” shall mean the overall control, general observation,
evaluation, and direction of student skill performance and student diving activities. The
Instructor must be personally present at the training site and be prepared to come to
the aid of a participant.
2.1.64 “Medical History/Statement” shall mean the medical history form completed by either
the participant or by a medical practitioner, as prescribed by the relevant PTRD
Country Partner, in order to determine a participant’s/diver’s suitability for participation in the
sport of underwater diving. Each PTRD Country Partner is required to draft its own standards
and requirements with regard to the completion of a Medical History/Statement by the
participant or by a certified diver. No in-water instruction shall be provided to a
participant without first having secured a signed Medical History/Statement from the
participant.
2.1.65 “Technical diving” shall mean diving, other than sport diving, speciality diving or
commercial diving, that takes divers beyond the normal limits of sport diving. It is an
activity that includes one or more of the following:
– diving beyond a depth of 40 meters;
– any dive that requires a mandatory decompression stop;
– any dive in an overhead environment with a restricted vertical ascent to the surface beyond the
cavern zone
– any dive during which accelerated stage decompression and/or the use of multiple gas
mixtures are used during a single dive
2.1.66 “Travel mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders used to provide an
advantageous or safer breathing gas mixture while descending or travelling to or in
some cases from a deeper phase of a dive.
2.1.67 “Trimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, used
for a deep and/or technical diving and having a lower oxygen and nitrogen content than
air.
2.1.68 “Wreck penetration” shall mean an excursion to the inside of a wreck, beyond where
light from an exit point can be seen.
3. PTRD Diver Training Philosophy
3.1 The PTRD Diver Training Philosophy is based on the following principles:
3.1.1 Thesport of underwater diving is not a risk free activity
3.1.1.1 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.1.2 That, although the sport of underwater diving is safe, it is not a risk free activity.
3.1.1.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.1.3.1 To inform participants of all PTRD Diver Training Programmes of the inherent risks
associated with underwater diving in order for them to take an informed decision as to their
participation in a PTRD Diver Training Programme;
3.1.1.3.2 To structure all PTRD Diver Education and Training Programmes in such a manner that it
will provide the participant with the necessary knowledge and skills to participate in the sport
in a safe and competent manner;
3.1.1.3.3 To always put the safety of the participants first during any PTRD Diver Training
Programme; and
3.1.1.3.4 To actively promote the conformance with recognised safe diving practices.
3.1.2 The participant has a right to take an informed decision on his participation in a PTRD
Diver Training Programme
3.1.2.1 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.2.1.1 That prospective PTRD Diver Training Programme participants can very easy be mislead by
unscrupulous Instructors with regard to the eventual outcome of a training programme, the
limitations of the eventual certification, additional hidden costs for services rendered during
the Diver Training Programme etc., which could leave the participant quite disillusioned upon
completion of the training programme.
3.1.2.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.2.2.1 To ensure that the PTRD Instructor provides the prospective participant with all the
information he requires about a PTRD Diver Training Programme in order for him to take an
informed decision as to his participation in the Diver Training Programme.
3.1.3 Quality Diver Education and Training
3.1.3.1 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.3.1.1 That quality diver education and training is the key to both diving safety and the
development of competent divers.
3.1.3.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.3.2.1 To develop Diver Training Standards that will promote quality diver education and training;
3.1.3.2.2 To develop diver training programmes that are not coupled to prescribed time periods of
instruction but which are rather coupled to the required performance of the participant.
3.1.3.2.3 To train PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional standard;
3.1.3.2.4 To ensure that our PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders maintain the highest standard of
care to promote safety and sound customer relations.
3.1.3.2.5 To ensure that theoretical instruction is provided under the direct supervision of a certified
PTRD Instructor;
3.1.3.2.6 To ensure that confined and open water instruction is provided under the direct supervision
of a certified PTRD Instructor.
3.1.3.2.7 To ensure that the assessment of a diver’s knowledge and skills is undertaken by a certified
PTRD Instructor.
3.1.3.2.8 To ensure that PTRD Instructors are only assisted by certified PTRD Assistants or Dive
Leaders that work under the supervision of a PTRD Instructor.
3.1.4 Continuous diver education and training
3.1.4.1 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.4.1.1 That learning is a life-long process that is never completed;
3.1.4.1.2 That there is no single Diver Training Programme that is intended to teach the participant
everything there is to know about the sport of underwater diving; and
3.1.4.1.3 That all PTRD divers should continue their diver education and training in order to stay
abreast of the latest developments in the sport of underwater diving and to ensure their
personal growth and development.
3.1.4.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.4.2.1 To actively encourage PTRD divers to enhance their existing diving knowledge and skills by
enrolling on more advanced PTRD Diver Training Programmes; and
3.1.4.2.2 Tostructure, where practical, the PTRD International Diver Training Certification System in
such a manner that each individual PTRD Diver Training Programme serves as a building
block towards the achievement of a higher or a more advanced level of certification thereby
ensuring the continuous development of the PTRD Diver’s knowledge and skills.
3.1.5 Continuous improvement of PTRD Diver Training Programmes
3.1.5.1 The PTRDrecognises:
3.1.5.1.1 That the sport of underwater diving is continuously evolving with the introduction of new
equipment, techniques and scientific knowledge; and
3.1.5.1.2 That PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are a valuable source of information as to possible
changes that need to be made to PTRD Diver Training Standards.
3.1.5.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.5.2.1 To stay abreast of the latest developments in the field of underwater diving;
3.1.5.2.2 To evaluate the proposals of PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders for the amendments to
PTRD Diver Training Standards; and
3.1.5.2.3 To continuously review and update PTRD Diver Training Standards to ensure that they
remain relevant to the latest developments in the field of underwater diving.
3.1.6 PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are role models
3.1.6.1 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.6.1.1 That PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are professionals and that other divers look up to
them for leadership and guidance.
3.1.6.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.6.2.1 To train all PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional level;
3.1.6.2.2 To ensure that PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders conduct themselves in a professional
manner; and
3.1.6.2.3 To ensure that PTRD instructors always lead by example.
3.1.7 PTRD value system
3.1.7.2 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.7.2.1 That a shared value system is something that engenders trust and binds an organisation
together; and
3.1.7.2.2 That a shared value system is also something by which an organisation is known by its
customers.
3.1.7.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.7.3.1 To ensure that our PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders subscribe to the shared values of
honesty, integrity, fairness and human dignity in all their business and diving interactions.
3.1.8 Co-operation with other Diver Training Agencies
3.1.8.2 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.8.2.1 That there are other international and national organisations that strive towards the
achievement of aims and objectives that are similar or identical to those of the PTRD and
with whom co-operation will lead to the benefit of all parties concerned.
3.1.8.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.8.3.1 To work towards openness in the diving community, to share procedures, techniques and
operational methods with other divers and organisations in order to share knowledge and
experience in the interest of diving safety and the process of continuous improvement.
3.1.9 PTRDtion of and sustainable use of the aquatic environment
3.1.9.2 The PTRD recognises:
3.1.9.2.1 That, throughout the world conservation organisations exist to encourage and educate
people who use the aquatic environmenton the importance of the conservation, PTRDtion
and sustainable utilization of this environment; and
3.1.9.2.2 That, as PTRD Divers, we utilize the aquatic environment to practice our sport of
underwater diving.
3.1.8.1 The PTRD therefore undertakes:
3.1.8.1.1 To educate all PTRD Divers as to their duty to PTRDt, conserve and utilize the aquatic
environment in a sustainable manner so as to ensure the enjoyment thereof by future
generations;
3.1.8.1.2 To educate all PTRD divers as to the importance of complying with international, national or
local legislation, guidelines or directives that have been enacted to PTRDt and conserve the
aquatic environment; and
3.1.8.1.3 To work together with conservation organisations to PTRDt, conserve and utilize the aquatic
environment in a sustainable manner.
4. General Requirements for the presentation of PTRD Diver Training Programmes
4.1 Overview
4.1.1 The general requirements for the training of PTRD Divers as included in this
Section are applicable to all PTRD Diver Training Programmes unless stated
to the contrary in the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.
4.1.2 This Section must therefore always be read together with a specific PTRD
Diver Training Standard in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the
specific requirements applicable to a specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.
4.2 General information to be provided to participants on all PTRD Diver Training
Programmes
4.2.1 The PTRD prescribes to the principle that the participant has the right to take an
informed decision as to his participation in any PTRD Diver Training Programme. In
order to comply with this principle, the PTRD Instructor shall, before or during the first
class meeting, make the following information available to the participant in order for
the participant to take an informed decision as to his participation in the training
programme:
4.2.1.1 The aim and objectives of the specific PTRD Training Programme.
4.2.1.2 The competencies of the certified diver who has completed thespecific PTRD Diver Training
Programme that the participant intends to attend.
4.2.1.3 The prerequisites for participation in the training programme.
4.2.2 The class requirements, which shall include the following:
4.2.2.1 The costs of participating in the training programme;
4.2.2.2 Medical suitability to dive as well as the importance of appropriate regular diving medical
examinations;
4.2.2.3 Insurance options/requirements in accordance with national regulations (if applicable); and
4.2.2.4 Contractual agreement, including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and termination
of the contract.
4.2.3 The scope of the training programme, which includes the following:
4.2.3.1 Content; and
4.2.3.2 Limitations of the eventual qualification
4.2.4 The diving related legislation and/or legal requirements applicable to the participant in
the country where the training programme is presented.
4.2.5 The specific equipment requirements of the participant during the training programme.
4.2.6 The local environmental considerations that will have an impact on the participant and/or
the presentation of the diver training programme.
4.2.7 The means and methods of assessment of the participant’s knowledge and skills during
the training programme.
4.2.8 The requirements for certification/successful completion of the training programme.
4.2.9 The specific training programme procedures and schedule.
4.2.10 The fact that records shall be kept of the participant’s personal data and that these
records may be passed on to the PTRD Country Partner, the PDC and/or PTRD
International. The personal data that the PTRD instructor is supposed to obtain from the
participant and keep in safe-keeping for a period of at least five (5) years shall include
the following:
4.2.10.1 Name, address and date of birth
4.2.10.2 Medical certification
4.2.10.3 Any previous training/certification, experience
4.2.10.4 The progress of the student
4.2.10.5 Records of certification once the training has been completed
4.3 General information about the PTRD to be provided to participants on all PTRD
Diver Training Programmes
4.3.1 The following information about the PTRD shall be made available to the participant
during the first class meeting:
4.3.1.1 The PTRD as an international body for the management of underwater sport;
4.3.1.2 The relationship between the School/Club/Country Partner and the PTRD;
4.3.1.3 The PTRD International Diver Certification System; and
4.3.1.4 The position of the specific PTRD Diver Training Programme in the PTRD
International Diver Certification System.
4.4 Career development information to be provided to participants on all PTRD Sport
Diver Training Programmes
4.4.1 The participant shall be informed of the following during the last class meeting:
4.4.1.1 The diving opportunities open to him once he has completed the specific PTRD Diver Training
Programme and obtained the relevant PTRD Diver Training Certification; and
4.4.1.2 The different PTRD Diver Training Programmes that he can attend once he has
completed the specific PTRD Diver Training Programme and obtained the relevant
PTRD Diver Training Certification.
4.5 Theoretical training parameters for PTRD Diver Training Programmes
4.5.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that theoretical training is conducted in an
environment that is free from significant distractions to learning, such as a
dedicated classroom. Furthermore, the training venue shall provide
participants with sufficient working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing
surfaces, reference materials, and computer, visual or audio materials) to
ensure that participants are able to understand the information being presented.
4.5.2 Each participant shall be provided with relevant training material, in either
printed or electronic format, that will assist him in mastering the required
theoretical concepts and principles.
4.6 Practical training parameters for PTRD Diver Training Programmes
4.6.1 Risk assessment
4.6.1.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before
each confined and open water dive, and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all
risks are controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be
considered as part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:
4.6.1.1.1 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)
4.6.1.1.2 depth
4.6.1.1.3 underwater visibility
4.6.1.1.4 pollution
4.6.1.1.5 entry/exit methods
4.6.1.1.6 restricted zones
4.6.1.1.7 suitability of the site for the planned activities
4.6.1.1.8 emergency action plan
4.6.1.2 The PTRD Instructor shall have the right to prevent any participant from taking part in
the activity if following a risk assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the
participant and/or of the other participants.
4.6.2 Emergency equipment and procedures
4.6.2.1 Emergency equipment
4.6.2.1.1 For all locations where confined or open water activities take place the PTRD
Instructor shall ensure the availability of the following:
4.6.2.1.1.1 A first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities;
4.6.2.1.1.2 An emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 litres/min of
pure oxygen for at least 20 min; and
4.6.2.1.1.3 A communication system suitable for alerting the Emergency Medical Services.
4.6.2.2 Emergency procedures
4.6.2.2.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that, at each dive site where confined or open
water diving activities take place, a documented emergency plan comprising at least
the following information is available:
4.6.2.2.1.1 Procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation;
4.6.2.2.1.2 Procedures for the use of the emergency oxygen supply; and
4.6.2.2.1.3 Information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the
availability of the nearest hyperbaric recompression chamber).
4.6.3 Equipment
4.6.3.1 The minimum equipment to be worn by a PTRD Instructor and a participant while
conducting confined and open water SCUBA diving training for any PTRD Sport,
Speciality or Sport and Speciality Leadership training programme shall consist of the
prescribed diving equipment listed in Clause 2.1.42 of Chapter 1 whilst the minimum
equipment to be worn by a PTRD Instructor and a participant while conducting confined
and open water snorkel diving training shall consist of the prescribed diving equipment
listed in Clause 2.1.43 of Chapter 1. When appropriate for open water diving, the use of a
surface support-station with dive flag or a surface marker buoy is also encouraged.
4.6.3.2 In the event that the PTRD Instructor or the training facility by whom he is employed/on
whose behalf he is presenting the training programme is providing or renting any diving
equipment to the student the PTRD Instructor shall ensure:
4.6.3.2.1 That the diving equipment rented or provided to the student conforms to the relevant
International Standards as prescribed by legislation applicable in the country where
the training programme is being presented;
4.6.3.2.2 That the diving equipment rented to the student is subjected to an inspection prior
to delivery in order to ascertain that it is fully operational;
4.6.3.2.3 That all diving equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions, and records of maintenance, servicing and inspection is
kept;
4.6.3.2.4 That the student is advised on choosing the proper diving equipment taking into
account the envisaged diving activity and the qualification and needs of the student
(e.g. the proper fit of buoyancy control devices and suits); and
4.6.3.2.5 That the student should not use the equipment unsupervised as the use of the diving
equipment requires specific training.
4.6.4 Information to be provided
4.6.4.1 Prior to each confined and open water training session, participants shall have the safety
provisions identified to them by the PTRD Instructor, including the following:
4.6.4.1.1 The identity and role of any assistants or other staff
4.6.4.1.2 Emergency procedures
4.6.4.1.3 Buddy/group assignments
4.6.4.1.4 The conduct required of the participants
4.6.4.2 The following additional information shall be provided to the participants before any open water
training dive by the PTRD Instructor:
4.6.4.2.1 Information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of
the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions);
4.6.4.2.2 Arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size; and
4.6.4.2.3 Depth and/or time limitations.
4.7 Instructor/student ratio for practical training
4.7.1 The maximum number of students for practical sport, speciality and sport and
specialityleadership diver training is eight (8) students per PTRD Instructor. Two (2)
additional students per certified PTRD Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of
twelve (12) students per PTRD Instructor. Although additional PTRD Dive Leaders
may be used, no additional students may be added to the responsibility of the individual
PTRD Instructor. These ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by
PTRD Country Partner and PDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other
factors in their respective countries.
4.7.2 The maximum number of students for technical diver and technical leadership
training is four (4) students per PTRD Instructor. Two (2) additional students per
certified PTRD Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of six (6) students per
PTRD Instructor. Although additional PTRD Dive Leaders may be used, no additional
students may be added to the responsibility of the individual PTRD Instructor. These
ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by PTRD Country Partner and
PDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other factors in their respective
countries.
4.8 Confined water training
4.8.1 Prior to the first confined water training lesson the student shall undergo a
“Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” as prescribed by the
Country Partner or PDC.
4.8.2 Participants shall receive their initial training of each snorkel diving and
SCUBA diving skill under the direct supervision of the PTRD Instructor.
Further skill development may continue under direct supervision of a certified
PTRD Dive Leader and indirect supervision of the Instructor. The PTRD
instructor shall conduct the final assessment to determine the satisfactory skill
performance ofeach student.
4.8.3 The participant shall be taught the skills prescribed by the specific PTRD Diver
Training Standard.
4.9 Open water training
4.9.1 Before participating in the open water training dives the participant shall have
demonstrated sufficient theoretical knowledge and snorkelling and/or SCUBA skills in
confined water to be able to perform the open water dives in the prevailing conditions.
4.9.2 An open water training dive shall comprise of the activities as provided for in the
definitions in Clause 2.1.48 of Chapter 1 and shall be directly supervised by a PTRD
Instructor.
4.9.3 Participants to be certified shall complete the prescribed number of open water training
dives under the direct supervision of a PTRD Instructor at the depths and for the
duration as prescribed by the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.
4.9.4 All under-water skills in open water shall be taught, directly supervised and
evaluated by a PTRD Instructor, who shall be in the water during each open water
training dive. The PTRD Instructor shall be in direct control of the students throughout
all open water training dives.
4.9.5 All open water training dives shall be conducted during normal daylight hours unless
otherwise specified by the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.
4.9.6 No open water training dive shall be conducted in any overhead environment where
direct vertical access to the surface is not possible unless otherwise specified by the
specific PTRD Diver Training Standard. Open water training dives shall therefore
generally not be conducted in under-water caves, inside wrecks or below ice. (Aquatic
plants are not considered an overhead obstruction).
4.9.7 No more than three (3) open water training dives may be conducted on a given day.
4.9.8 The safe supervision of participants is the sole responsibility of the PTRD Instructor.
The PTRD Instructor shall lower the instructor/ participant ratio as provided for in
Clause 4.7 of Chapter 1 or as prescribed by his PTRD Country Partner or PDCwhere
environmental conditions are less than ideal, for example where underwater
visibility is poor or where there is significant water movement. The PTRD
Instructor may also use additional aids to improve safety such as ascent lines, surface
support stations or Instructional Assistants. Where Instructional Assistants are used
they shall comply with the requirements as prescribed by each PTRD Diver
Training Standard.
4.9.9 The PTRDInstructor shall limit the number of participants on open water training
dives so that either the PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive Leader is able to establish
physical contact with every participant at any time during the open water dive.
4.9.10 The PTRD Instructor shall cancel or abort the open water training dive if
environmental conditions, equipment problems or a participant’s physical or mental
condition make this necessary.
4.10 Right to withhold certification
4.10.1 The PTRD Instructor shall have the right to withhold the participant’s certification, if in
the opinion of the PTRD Instructor, the participant has not performed satisfactorily in
any one or more of the prescribed requirements for certification as described in the
relevant PTRD Diver Training Standard.
4.10.2 Quality Assurance for PTRD Sport Diver Training Programmes
4.10.3 Both PTRD International and a PTRD Country Partner shall have the right to institute any
such quality assurance measures that they deem appropriate in order to ensure that all
PTRD Diver Training is conducted throughout the world in accordance to the minimum
requirements of this Standard.
5. PTRD Code of International Diving Signals
5.1 The PTRD Compulsory Hand signals are as follows:

Captura
The PTRD Night Diving Signals are as follows:

Captura
5.2 The PTRD Additional Hand Signals are as follows:

Captura

6. PTRD Delayed Surface Marker Buoy Colour Code System
6.1 The PTRD International DSMB Colour Code System is as follows:

Colour of DSMB / Interpretation

Red / Indicates the position of a diver that is ascending normally.

Yellow / Indicates a diver in distress that requires assistance. The DSMB may
be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate) indicating the
required assistance(e.g. “More air”).

Yellow and Red / The red DSMB is usually sent up first to indicate the position of a diver
and that he is ascending normally. The second DSMB, Yellow, is
deployed to indicate that the diver now needs assistance. Again the
DSMB may be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate)
indicating the required assistance(e.g. “More air”).

6.2 It is important that only DSMB’s with the standard colour code system is used. Divers should not use
DSMB’s with mixed colours (i.e. red one side and yellow the other side) or any other colour than the
recommended colours as it may prohibit certain divers from reacting in an emergency as they are not
familiar with the colour code.
6.3 This standard does not apply to surface marker buoys (SMB’s) that are trailed on the surface by divers to
mark their position.
7. The Ten Golden Rules of PTRD
7.1 The Ten Golden Rules of PTRD are as follows:
7.1.1 Never enter the water through reed, living corals or water plants;
7.1.2 Control your buoyancy;
7.1.3 Keep your distance from corals and other animals and do not stir up the sediment;
7.1.4 Take care where dropping anchor during boats dives;
7.1.5 Do not harass, touch or feed wild animals;
7.1.6 Do not spearfish (for fun), an do not buy or collect souvenirs such as corals and shells;
7.1.7 Be very careful when diving in caves. Bubbles and simple contact may destroy their
delicate life;
7.1.8 Keep dive sites clean;
7.1.9 Learn about the underwater life and avoid any destruction; and
7.1.10 Urge your buddies to follow these rules.

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