General Standards and Procedures

Chapter 1

 

  1. The PTRD International Diver Training Certification System

1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 The PTRD has developed a PTRD International Diver Training Certification System that

consists of Diver, Speciality Diver, Technical Diver and Leadership Diver Training Standards

and which allows divers, that have been trained in accordance with the prescribed PTRD

International Diver Training Standards, to have their certifications recognized throughout the

world in countries that are members of the PTRD family of divers.

1.1.2 A diver can obtain a PTRD International Diver Training Certificate by means of either of the

following:

1.1.2.1 By attending a PTRD Diver Training Programme of a PTRD Country Partner, that is presented by a

PTRD Instructor that is duly authorized to present the training programme on behalf of the

specific PTRD Country Partner, provided that the PTRD Country Partner is a member in good standing

with the PTRD International Technical Committee and provided that such training programme

has been recognized by PTRD International as equivalent to the PTRD International Diver

Training Standard for that specific training programme.

1.1.2.2 By attending a PTRD Diver Training Programme of a PDC, that is presented by a PTRD

Instructor that is duly authorized to present the training programme on behalf of the specific

PDC, provided that the PDC is a member in good standing with the PTRD International

Technical Committee and provided that such training programme has been recognized by

PTRD International as equivalent to the PTRD International Diver Training Standard for that

specific training programme.

1.2 Aim of the PTRD International Diver Training Certification System

1.2.1 The PTRD International Diver Training Certification System aims at providing international

recognition for all PTRD Diver Training Certifications by clearly stating, in the prescribed PTRD

Diver Training Standards, the level of competence and experience required from a diver before a

specific level of PTRD certification will be issued to him by PTRD International. This means that

the system is intended to provide international recognition of an individual diver’s level of

competence and experience, irrespective of where he was trained in the world, allowing him to

dive all over the world with his PTRD International C-card.

1.2.2 All PTRD Country Partners or PDC’s are compelled to recognize a diver’s PTRD International

Certification allowing the diver to dive within the parameters of his PTRD International

Certification and allowing him to gain access to more advanced PTRD Diver Training

Programmes based on his PTRD International Certification.

1.3 Format used for PTRD International Diver Training Certificates

1.3.1 PTRD International produces a double sided plastic Certification Card, referred to as a “C-card”

for every Diver Training Programme included in this PTRD International Diver Training Standards

and Procedures Manual that serves as proof that the card holder has been assessed by a PTRD

Instructor and that he has achieved the desired level of competence as coupled to the specific

level of certification as prescribed by the relevant PTRD Standard.

1.3.2 The front side of the C-card is reserved for use by PTRD International and contains the following

information:

1.3.2.1 A three dimensional PTRD hologram; and

1.3.2.2 The PTRD standards information.

1.3.3 The reverse side of the C-card could be used by the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC and shall include the following:

1.3.3.1 The Diving Level of the card holder

1.3.3.2 The Completed Name of the card holder;

1.3.3.3 The name of the country where the C-card was certified;

1.3.3.4 The number of the C-card; and

1.3.3.5 If applicable, the expiry-date of the C-card.

1.3.4 The PTRD International also produces wetsuit certification badges and wall certificates that are

available upon request from the PTRD International Head Office.

1.4 Procedure for obtaining equivalent PTRD International grades for national certifications

1.4.1 Any PTRD Country Partner or PDC that wishes to obtain PTRD International recognition for their

certifications shall comply to the following:

1.4.1.1 The Country Partner or the PDC must be affiliated to the PTRD Technical Committee;

1.4.1.2 The Country Partner or the PDC must submit their Diver Training Standards as may be prescribed by

the PTRD International Technical Committee for the PTRD Diver Training Programmes for

which they seek PTRD International equivalence to the PTRD International Technical

Committee for evaluation, or alternatively, they may undertake in writing to conform to the PTRD

International Diver Training Standards as prescribed by this PTRD International Diver Training

Standards and Procedures Manual;

1.4.1.3 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will submit any other information or documentation as may be

required by the PTRD International Technical Committee, to complete the evaluation, to the

PTRD International Technical Committee upon request by the last mentioned;

1.4.1.4 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will make all such amendments to its Diver Training

Standards as requested by the PTRD International Technical Committee ; and

1.4.1.5 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC will, if so desired by the PTRD International Technical

Committee, allow a member of the PTRD International Technical Committee or a suitably

qualified person appointed by them, to observe the presentation of the diver training

programmes for which the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC seeks PTRD International equivalence

from PTRD international.

1.4.2 Once the PTRD International Technical Committee has evaluated the PTRD Country Partner’s or the

PDC’s Diver Training Standard for which it has applied for equivalence, the PTRD International

Technical Committee will make a recommendation to the PTRD International Board of Directors

as to the granting of equivalence or not to the PTRD Diver Training Standard of the PTRD

Country Partner or the PDC.

1.4.3 The Secretary General will inform the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC in writing of the decision of

the PTRD International Board of Directors.

1.4.4 Once equivalence has been awarded to a PTRD Country Partner or the PDC for a specific PTRD

Diver Training Programme:

1.4.4.1 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC is required to make all such amendments to its Diver Training

Standard as may be prescribed by the PTRD International Technical Committee; and

1.4.4.2 The PTRD Country Partner or the PDC is compelled to issue the prescribed PTRD International Ccard

for the PTRD Diver Training Programmes for equivalence which was granted.

1.5 Procedure for the issuing PTRD International Diver Training Certifications

1.5.1 All PTRD C-cards have to be ordered from the PTRD International Head Office. The C-cards

can be ordered by any affiliated PTRD Country Partner or PDC.

1.5.2 It is the responsibility of the PTRD Country Partner or the PDC to print allthe personal information of

the card holder on the C-card.

1.5.3 All PTRD Country Partners and PDC’s are obliged to annually send a list containing the following

information of all the C-cards issued during the year to the PTRD International Head Office:

1.5.3.1 Surname of card holder

1.5.3.2 Full names of card holder

1.5.3.3 Nationality of card holder

1.5.3.4 Postal address of card holder

1.5.3.5 PTRD number for the C-card

1.6 PTRD Certification Card Numbering System

1.6.1 The following numbering system shall be used on all PTRD C-cards:

1.6.1.1 “ XXX/99/888888

1.6.2 The meaning of the numbering system is as follows:

1.6.2.1 “ XXX” shall be used to indicate the Olympic acronym of the country of the PTRD Country Partner or

the PDC where the C-card was issued;

1.6.2.2 “99” shall be used to indicate the last two digits of the year in which the C-card was issued; and

1.6.2.3 “888888” shall be used to indicate the unique six digit sequential C-card number for the specific

level of certification issued in the specific year (It is mandatory that the sequential number starts

at 000001 on the 1st of January each and every year).

1.6.3 The following will serve as examples of the prescribed numbering system:

1.6.3.1 “ESP/02/000025” which means that it is the 25th C-card issued by the Spanish

Country Partner ; and

1.6.3.2 “ITA/03/000169” which means that it is the 169th C-card issued by the Italian Country Partner.

1.7 Term of validity of PTRD International Diving Certificates

1.7.1 The period of validity of a PTRD International C-card issued by a PTRD Country Partner or PDC

shall be equal to that of the equal national certification issued by the PTRD Country Partner or the

PDC unless specifically prescribed by a PTRD International Diver Training Standard, in which

case the last mentioned term of validity shall be applicable.

1.7.2 The term of validity of all PTRD International Instructor C-cards is five (5) years from date of

issue.

1.8 Prohibition on the issuing of C-cards other than PTRD International C-cards

1.8.1 No PTRD Country Partner or PDC is allowed to produce its own C-cards for any PTRD Diver

Training Programme offered and regulated by PTRD International. This means that all PTRD

Country Partners and PDC’s are compelled to issue the prescribed PTRD International C-cards that

exist for PTRD Diver Training Programmes.

1.8.2 Any Diver Training C-card of a PTRD Country Partner or PDC that is not printed on an official double

sided PTRD International C-card shall not be recognized by any PTRD Country Partner or PDC as

equivalent to a PTRD International double-sided C-card . This means that the level of

certification held by such a card holder shall not be regarded as valid and shall not be

recognized by any PTRD Country Partner or PDC for the purposes of proof of diver certification or for

the advancement to a higher or more advanced level of PTRD diver training.

1.8.3 PTRD International views any C-card that any PTRD Country Partner or PDC produces for any

PTRD Diver Training Programme offered and regulated by PTRD international as a counterfeit

C-card and reserves the right to institute legal action against any such PTRD Country Partner or PDC

that produces such C-cards.

 

  1. Definitions used in PTRD Diver Training

2.1 In these Standards, unless the context indicates otherwise –

2.1.1 “Air” shall mean an appropriate mixture of oxygen and nitrogen, with no less than 20% oxygen,

which can be used as a breathing gas for SCUBA diving.

2.1.2 “Altitude” shall mean elevation above sea level.

2.1.3 “Altitude diving” shall mean SCUBA diving where the surface is above sea level. The specific

height above sea level that will be used to determine whether a dive is an altitude dive or not is

determined by the Dive Tables used to plan the dive (e.g. the Spanish Aramada or US Navy Dive Tables regards any dive in excess of 91 meters above sea level as an altitude dive and the Bühlmann Dive Tables

regard any dive in excess of 700 meters above sea level as an altitude dive).

2.1.4 “Apnoea” shall mean competitive free diving or breath-hold diving in which competitors attempt

to attain great depths, times or distances on a single breath without the assistance of SCUBA

equipment.

2.1.5 “Appropriate forms for the acknowledging and assuming the risk of diving” shall mean,

but not be limited to an Indemnity Form or a Waiver and Release Agreement that informs the

participant of a PTRD Diver Training Programme of the inherent risks of SCUBA diving and

which the participant is required to sign, thereby acknowledging and assuming those risks and

which indemnifies the PTRD Instructor, his Assistants, the Diver Training Facility, the PTRD

Country Partner and PTRD International and their owners/managers or office bearers from any

claims which may arise from any person if an accident should befall the participant. No in-water

instruction shall be provided to a participant without first having secured a release signed by the

participant or by the parent(s) and/or legal guardian(s) of a minor. Each PTRD Country Partner is

required to draft their own Indemnity Forms and/or Waiver and Release Agreements relevant to

the specific PTRD Diver Training Programmes they present.

2.1.6 “Assessment of a diving casualty” shall mean the primary and secondary

assessment of the diving casualty.

2.1.7 “Assisted ascent” shall include the controlled buoyant lifting technique from behind,

the controlled buoyant lifting technique from the front and the tethered buoyant lifting

technique.

2.1.8 “Breathing gas” shall mean a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen with no less than 20%

oxygen that is normally referred to as “air”.

2.1.9 “Bottom gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinder(s) intended

to be used in the bottom time phase of a dive.

2.1.10 “Briefing” shall mean a short pre-dive discussion between a PTRD Instructor and the

participants or between a PTRD Dive Leader and the qualified divers he is going to

lead/supervise on a dive, including but not limited to the procedures to be followed

during a dive (i.e. team assignments, entry, descent, ascent, surfacing, and exit

procedures, time and depth limits during the dive, contingency and emergency

procedures), site and/or environmental considerations, communication, pre-dive

equipment preparation, skills to be practiced/demonstrated/assessed (in the case of

training) and post-dive procedures.

2.1.11 “Cave diving” shall mean a penetration into a naturally occurring rock environment

with a restricted vertical ascent beyond the cavern zone.

2.1.12 “Cavern diving” shall mean diving in the area in an underwater cave that is illuminated

in part by natural sunlight and from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible.

2.1.13 “CCR” shall mean Closed-Circuit Rebreather.

2.1.14 “PDC” shall mean a PTRD Diving Centre that is registered with the PTRD International

Technical Committee and that is in good standing with PTRD International.

2.1.15 “Certification” shall mean a PTRD Certification Card (“C-Card”) documenting that a

participant has completed all requirements of a specific PTRD Diver Training

Programme. This verification is issued by PTRD International, the National

Country Partneror the PDC upon receipt of an instructor’s written confirmation of satisfactory

completion of all training programme requirements by the participant, as documented in

the participant’s Personal Log Book/Training Record.

2.1.16 “PTRD Leadership Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and

sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach one

or more PTRD Leadership Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of

PTRD Dive Leader and/or PTRD Instructor certification.

2.1.17 “PTRD Snorkel Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified

as a PTRD Three Star Snorkel Diver and who is sanctioned by PTRD International

and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to lead guided and organized open water dives

and to assist a PTRD Instructor during confined and open water training.

2.1.18 “PTRD Snorkel Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified

and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach

one or more PTRD Snorkel Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance

of PTRD Snorkel Diver certification

2.1.19 “PTRD Specialty Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified

and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach

one or more PTRD Specialty Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the

issuance of PTRD Specialty Diver certification.

2.1.20 “PTRD Sport Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified and

sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach one

or more PTRD Sport Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the issuance of

PTRD Snorkel Diver and PTRD Sport Diver certification.

2.1.21 “PTRD Sport Diving Dive Leader” shall mean an individual who is currently certified

as a PTRD Three Star Diver and who is sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his

National Country Partner or PDC to lead guided and organized open water dives and to

assist a PTRD Instructor during confined and open water training.

2.1.22 “PTRD Technical Diving Instructor” shall mean an individual who is currently certified

and sanctioned by PTRD International and/or his National Country Partner or PDC to teach

one or more PTRD Technical Diver Training Programmes and to authorize the

issuance of PTRD Technical Diver certification.

2.1.23 “PTRD National Country Partner” shall mean a National Country Partner that is a member of the

PTRD International Technical Committee and that is in good standing with PTRD

International.

2.1.24 “Competencies” shall mean a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes

performed to a specific standard under specific conditions.

2.1.25 “Computer Generated Dive Tables” shall mean desktop decompression profiles

generated by various computer software programmes. Each PTRD Country Partner is

allowed to select the software they want to use for instruction and diving.

2.1.26 “Confined water” shall mean a swimming pool with a depth appropriate to the activity

or any body of water that offers conditions similar to those of a swimming pool with

regard to visibility, depth, water movement and access.

2.1.27 “Debriefing” shall mean a short post-dive discussion between a PTRD Instructor and

the participants or between a PTRD Dive Leader and the qualified divers he supervised

on a dive, including but not limited to, comments on the dive and further directions to

enhance performance, for repetitive dives etc.

2.1.28 “Decompression gas/mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders

used during the ascent phase (decompression) phase of a dive.

2.1.29 “Decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that requires a mandatory in-water

decompression stop.

2.1.30 “Disabled” shall mean a person with a physical impairment which limits his physical

functioning.

2.1.31 “Dive management” shall mean all actions and measures necessary to ensure the safe

conduct of diving activities, including:

– planning

– emergency procedures

– briefing

– conduct and control

– de-briefing

2.1.32 “Dive Table(s)” shall mean a numerical table(s) used by SCUBA divers to determine

time limits of dives, according to depth, as well as possible decompression delays

during ascent and requisite surface intervals between dives. Each PTRD Country Partner is

allowed to select the Dive Tables they want to use for instruction and diving.

2.1.33 “DSMB” shall mean a delayed surface marker buoy (i.e.an inflatable buoy that can be

deployed from depth to provide a warning to surface users and their cover boat that

they are ascending or require assistance).

2.1.34 “Emergency-signaling device” shall mean a device suitable for the venue in which

open water diving is performed which can be used to attract the attention of the surface

party or a search party if the diver or dive group become separated from the dive boat

or surface party such as a BC integrated emergency horn, signaling mirror, safety

sausage etc. or during any other emergency.

2.1.35 “END” shall mean Equivalent Narcotic Depth.

2.1.36 “Enriched Air Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen

and oxygen, used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air. It

is also commonly referred to as “Nitrox”.

2.1.37 “Guided dive” shall mean an organized open water dive where certified divers are

accompanied in and/or underwater by either a PTRD Dive Leader or a PTRD Instructor.

2.1.38 “Introductory SCUBA dive” shall mean an open water SCUBA dive made under the

direct supervision of a PTRD Instructor to introduce the participant to sport diving.

2.1.39 “Instructional Assistant” shall mean a PTRD Dive Leader.

2.1.40 “Knowledge” shall mean the specific information required for the participant to develop

the skills and attitudes for effective accomplishment of diving tasks/duties.

2.1.41 “Leadership diving” shall include but not be limited to any activity where a PTRD

Instructor is required to instruct participants on a PTRD Diver Training Programme or

where a certified assistant assists a PTRD Instructor on a PTRD Diver Training

Programme or where a PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive Leader oversees and/or

supervises certified divers on guided or organized dives.

2.1.42 “Minimum instructional sport diving system” shall mean the equipment required to

be worn by the PTRD Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the

skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the PTRD Diver and

Specialty Diver Training Programmes included in this Manual. This equipment

includes, as a minimum, the following:

– mask

– snorkel

– fins

– exposure suit (if appropriate)

– quick release weighting system

– cylinder and valve

– cylinder-support system

– buoyancy control device with low-pressure inflator system

– regulator

– alternate air source (could range from a simple octopus system to a duplicate

breathing system with a separate breathing gas system)

– submersible pressure gauge

– timing device

– depth gauge

– cutting device (if not prohibited by legislation)

– emergency signaling device (acoustical, optical)

2.1.43 “Minimum instructional snorkel diving system” shall mean the equipment required

to be worn by the PTRD Instructor, his assistants and the students while performing the

skills prescribed for both the confined and open water training of the PTRD Snorkel

Diver Training Programmes and shall include the following:

– fins

– mask

– snorkel

– personal flotation device (if appropriate, e.g. snorkeling vest)

– a quick release weight system (if appropriate)

– exposure suit (if appropriate)

2.1.44 “Nitrox” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen,

used in diving instead of air and having lower nitrogen content than air.

2.1.45 “No-decompression stop dive” shall mean a dive that does not require a mandatory

in-water decompression stop.

2.1.46 “Normoxic Trimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and

nitrogen, used for a deep and/or technical diving and having an oxygen content of at

least 18 percent.

2.1.47 “Open water” shall mean anybody of water significantly larger than a swimming pool

offering conditions typical of a natural body of water encountered in the region.

2.1.48 “Open water training dives” shall mean supervised, open water snorkel/free diving or

SCUBA training experiences to fulfil the certification requirements of a PTRD Diver

Training Programme and shall, as a minimum consist of the following:

– a briefing

– preparation to dive

– pre-dive checks

– an appropriate method of entry into the water

– descent procedures (if applicable)

– in and/or underwater activity of at least the prescribed underwater duration in the

prescribed depth range

– an appropriate method of exit from the water

– a debriefing

– post dive procedures including equipment care

– recording (logging) the dive in student’s Personal Log Book.

2.1.49 “Organized dive” shall mean a service offered by a PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive

Leader, where divers who are already at a qualification and experience level suitable

for the diving activity, are taken to a dive site.

2.1.50 “Out-of-air emergency alternatives” shall mean dependent or independent procedures

allowing a diver to ascend to the surface in the event of an out-of-air situation.

– Dependent procedures include: octopus breathing; buddy breathing; redundant air supply

(provided by buddy)

– Independent procedures include: emergency ascent; redundant air supply.

2.1.51 “Overhead environment” shall mean any dive site that has a physical ceiling, such as

the inside of a cave or a wreck, from which a quick and direct escape to the surface

cannot be safely made.

2.1.52 “Participant” shall mean an individual that complies with the prerequisites for

participation in any of the PTRD Diver Training Programmes and who has formally

enrolled on such a diver training programme presented by a PTRD Instructor.

Synonyms for the word “participant” are “student”, “candidate” or “learner”.

2.1.53 “Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” shall mean a swimming and

drown-proofing assessment by the PTRD Instructor in order to determine the

participant’s suitability for participation in a specific PTRD Diver Training Programme,

given the specific physical demands of a specific PTRD Diver Training Programme.

Each PTRD Country Partner is required to draft their own physical conditioning and

watermanship evaluation standards and procedures.

2.1.54 “Pre-dive check” shall mean a check, including but not limited to, gas availability and

suitability for a dive and equipment operating condition. It is normally conducted by the

diver himself and by the dive buddy just before entering the water or in the water just

before the descent.

2.1.55 “Risk assessment” shall mean the identification of hazards and who may be harmed by

them.

2.1.56 “SCUBA” shall mean any diving apparatus that is a self-contained underwater

breathing apparatus.

2.1.57 “Safety swimmer” shall mean a certified diver who holds at least a PTRD Rescue

Diver certification who is equipped in snorkeling equipment and who can come to the

assistance of a participant during any surface training dive/exercise.

2.1.58 “SCR” shall mean Semi-Closed Rebreather.

2.1.59 “Skill” shall mean an ability, learned and acquired through training, to perform actions

that achieve a specific desired outcome.

2.1.60 “Snorkel diving” shall mean the activity of swimming while typically using a mask,

snorkel and fins, where participants remain at the surface or make occasional breath

hold dives and where buoyancy devices may be used to provide surface support

depending on the environmental conditions and the participants’ abilities.

2.1.61 “Specialty diving” shall mean specialized sport diving activities that require additional

training other than normal sport diver training or specialized sport diver training for

individuals or groups with special needs in order to be conducted safely and/or in a

competent manner and includes, but is not limited to, such activities such as night diving,

wreck diving, limited visibility diving, cavern diving or children diving activities.

2.1.62 “Sport diving” shall mean diving to a depth no greater than 40 meters, using only

compressed air or Nitrox (with no more than 40% oxygen) as a breathing gas, never

requiring a mandatory decompression stop and having direct vertical access to the

surface from which an emergency swimming ascent is possible during an emergency. A

synonym for sport diving is “recreational diving”.

2.1.63 “Supervision” shall mean, as it relates to confined and open water training, the

prescribed level of supervision required by either the PTRD Instructor or PTRD Dive

Leader in order to ensure the safety of the diving activity. The level of supervision

required is prescribed as either direct or indirect supervision, which is defined as follows:

Direct supervision” shall mean visual observation and evaluation of participant

skill performance and student diving activities by a PTRD Instructor or PTRD Dive

Leader. Direct supervision requires personal observation and evaluation of the

performance of the skills required for certification. During underwater skill

performance and evaluation, direct supervision requires the student to be

accompanied underwater.

“Indirect supervision” shall mean the overall control, general observation,

evaluation, and direction of student skill performance and student diving activities. The

Instructor must be personally present at the training site and be prepared to come to

the aid of a participant.

2.1.64 “Medical History/Statement” shall mean the medical history form completed by either

the participant or by a medical practitioner, as prescribed by the relevant PTRD

Country Partner, in order to determine a participant’s/diver’s suitability for participation in the

sport of underwater diving. Each PTRD Country Partner is required to draft its own standards

and requirements with regard to the completion of a Medical History/Statement by the

participant or by a certified diver. No in-water instruction shall be provided to a

participant without first having secured a signed Medical History/Statement from the

participant.

2.1.65 “Technical diving” shall mean diving, other than sport diving, specialty diving or

commercial diving, that takes divers beyond the normal limits of sport diving. It is an

activity that includes one or more of the following:

– diving beyond a depth of 40 meters;

– any dive that requires a mandatory decompression stop;

– any dive in an overhead environment with a restricted vertical ascent to the surface beyond the

cavern zone

– any dive during which accelerated stage decompression and/or the use of multiple gas

mixtures are used during a single dive

2.1.66 “Travel mix” shall mean the breathing gas mixture(s) in the cylinders used to provide

an advantageous or safer breathing gas mixture while descending or travelling to or in

some cases from a deeper phase of a dive.

2.1.67 “Trimix” shall mean a breathing gas, consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen, used

for a deep and/or technical diving and having a lower oxygen and nitrogen content than

air.

2.1.68 “Wreck penetration” shall mean an excursion to the inside of a wreck, beyond where

light from an exit point can be seen.

 

  1. PTRD Diver Training Philosophy

3.1 The PTRD Diver Training Philosophy is based on the following principles:

3.1.1 The sport of underwater diving is not a risk-free activity

3.1.1.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.1.2 That, although the sport of underwater diving is safe, it is not a risk-free activity.

3.1.1.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.1.3.1 To inform participants of all PTRD Diver Training Programmes of the inherent risks

associated with underwater diving in order for them to take an informed decision as to their

participation in a PTRD Diver Training Programme;

3.1.1.3.2 To structure all PTRD Diver Education and Training Programmes in such a manner that it

will provide the participant with the necessary knowledge and skills to participate in the sport

in a safe and competent manner;

3.1.1.3.3 To always put the safety of the participants first during any PTRD Diver Training

Programme; and

3.1.1.3.4 To actively promote the conformance with recognized safe diving practices.

3.1.2 The participant has a right to take an informed decision on his participation in a PTRD

Diver Training Programme

3.1.2.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.2.1.1 That prospective PTRD Diver Training Programme participants can very easy be mislead by

unscrupulous Instructors with regard to the eventual outcome of a training programme, the

limitations of the eventual certification, additional hidden costs for services rendered during

the Diver Training Programme etc., which could leave the participant quite disillusioned upon

completion of the training programme.

3.1.2.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.2.2.1 To ensure that the PTRD Instructor provides the prospective participant with all the

information he requires about a PTRD Diver Training Programme in order for him to take an

informed decision as to his participation in the Diver Training Programme.

3.1.3 Quality Diver Education and Training

3.1.3.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.3.1.1 That quality diver education and training is the key to both diving safety and the

development of competent divers.

3.1.3.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.3.2.1 To develop Diver Training Standards that will promote quality diver education and training;

3.1.3.2.2 To develop diver training programmes that are not coupled to prescribed time periods of

instruction but which are rather coupled to the required performance of the participant.

3.1.3.2.3 To train PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional standard;

3.1.3.2.4 To ensure that our PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders maintain the highest standard of

care to promote safety and sound customer relations.

3.1.3.2.5 To ensure that theoretical instruction is provided under the direct supervision of a certified

PTRD Instructor;

3.1.3.2.6 To ensure that confined and open water instruction is provided under the direct supervision

of a certified PTRD Instructor.

3.1.3.2.7 To ensure that the assessment of a diver’s knowledge and skills is undertaken by a certified

PTRD Instructor.

3.1.3.2.8 To ensure that PTRD Instructors are only assisted by certified PTRD Assistants or Dive

Leaders that work under the supervision of a PTRD Instructor.

3.1.4 Continuous diver education and training

3.1.4.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.4.1.1 That learning is a life-long process that is never completed;

3.1.4.1.2 That there is no single Diver Training Programme that is intended to teach the participant

everything there is to know about the sport of underwater diving; and

3.1.4.1.3 That all PTRD divers should continue their diver education and training in order to stay

abreast of the latest developments in the sport of underwater diving and to ensure their

personal growth and development.

3.1.4.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.4.2.1 To actively encourage PTRD divers to enhance their existing diving knowledge and skills by

enrolling on more advanced PTRD Diver Training Programmes; and

3.1.4.2.2 To structure, where practical, the PTRD International Diver Training Certification System in

such a manner that each individual PTRD Diver Training Programme serves as a building

block towards the achievement of a higher or a more advanced level of certification thereby

ensuring the continuous development of the PTRD Diver’s knowledge and skills.

3.1.5 Continuous improvement of PTRD Diver Training Programmes

3.1.5.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.5.1.1 That the sport of underwater diving is continuously evolving with the introduction of new

equipment, techniques and scientific knowledge; and

3.1.5.1.2 That PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are a valuable source of information as to possible

changes that need to be made to PTRD Diver Training Standards.

3.1.5.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.5.2.1 To stay abreast of the latest developments in the field of underwater diving;

3.1.5.2.2 To evaluate the proposals of PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders for the amendments to

PTRD Diver Training Standards; and

3.1.5.2.3 To continuously review and update PTRD Diver Training Standards to ensure that they

remain relevant to the latest developments in the field of underwater diving.

3.1.6 PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are role models

3.1.6.1 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.6.1.1 That PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders are professionals and that other divers look up to

them for leadership and guidance.

3.1.6.2 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.6.2.1 To train all PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders to a professional level;

3.1.6.2.2 To ensure that PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders conduct themselves in a professional

manner; and

3.1.6.2.3 To ensure that PTRD instructors always lead by example.

3.1.7 PTRD value system

3.1.7.2 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.7.2.1 That a shared value system is something that engenders trust and binds an organization

together; and

3.1.7.2.2 That a shared value system is also something by which an organization is known by its

customers.

3.1.7.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.7.3.1 To ensure that our PTRD Instructors and Dive Leaders subscribe to the shared values of

honesty, integrity, fairness and human dignity in all their business and diving interactions.

3.1.8 Co-operation with other Diver Training Agencies

3.1.8.2 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.8.2.1 That there are other international and national organizations that strive towards the

achievement of aims and objectives that are similar or identical to those of the PTRD and

with whom co-operation will lead to the benefit of all parties concerned.

3.1.8.3 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.8.3.1 To work towards openness in the diving community, to share procedures, techniques and

operational methods with other divers and organizations in order to share knowledge and

experience in the interest of diving safety and the process of continuous improvement.

3.1.9 Protection of and sustainable use of the aquatic environment

3.1.9.2 The PTRD recognizes:

3.1.9.2.1 That, throughout the world conservation organizations exist to encourage and educate

people who use the aquatic environment on the importance of the conservation, protection

and sustainable utilization of this environment; and

3.1.9.2.2 That, as PTRD Divers, we utilize the aquatic environment to practice our sport of

underwater diving.

3.1.8.1 The PTRD therefore undertakes:

3.1.8.1.1 To educate all PTRD Divers as to their duty to protect, conserve and utilize the aquatic

environment in a sustainable manner so as to ensure the enjoyment thereof by future

generations;

3.1.8.1.2 To educate all PTRD divers as to the importance of complying with international, national or

local legislation, guidelines or directives that have been enacted to protect and conserve the

aquatic environment; and

3.1.8.1.3 To work together with conservation organizations to protect, conserve and utilize the aquatic

environment in a sustainable manner.

 

  1. General Requirements for the presentation of PTRD Diver Training Programmes

4.1 Overview

4.1.1 The general requirements for the training of PTRD Divers as included in this

Section are applicable to all PTRD Diver Training Programmes unless stated to the contrary in the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.

4.1.2 This Section must therefore always be read together with a specific PTRD Diver Training Standard in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the specific requirements applicable to a specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.

4.2 General information to be provided to participants on all PTRD Diver Training Programmes

4.2.1 The PTRD prescribes to the principle that the participant has the right to take an

informed decision as to his participation in any PTRD Diver Training Programme. In

order to comply with this principle, the PTRD Instructor shall, before or during the first

class meeting, make the following information available to the participant in order for

the participant to take an informed decision as to his participation in the training programme:

4.2.1.1 The aim and objectives of the specific PTRD Training Programme.

4.2.1.2 The competencies of the certified diver who has completed the specific PTRD Diver Training

Programme that the participant intends to attend.

4.2.1.3 The prerequisites for participation in the training programme.

4.2.2 The class requirements, which shall include the following:

4.2.2.1 The costs of participating in the training programme;

4.2.2.2 Medical suitability to dive as well as the importance of appropriate regular diving medical

examinations;

4.2.2.3 Insurance options/requirements in accordance with national regulations (if applicable); and

4.2.2.4 Contractual agreement, including conditions bearing on the signature, delivery and termination

of the contract.

4.2.3 The scope of the training programme, which includes the following:

4.2.3.1 Content; and

4.2.3.2 Limitations of the eventual qualification

4.2.4 The diving related legislation and/or legal requirements applicable to the participant in

the country where the training programme is presented.

4.2.5 The specific equipment requirements of the participant during the training programme.

4.2.6 The local environmental considerations that will have an impact on the participant and/or

the presentation of the diver training programme.

4.2.7 The means and methods of assessment of the participant’s knowledge and skills during

the training programme.

4.2.8 The requirements for certification/successful completion of the training programme.

4.2.9 The specific training programme procedures and schedule.

4.2.10 The fact that records shall be kept of the participant’s personal data and that these

records may be passed on to the PTRD Country Partner, the PDC and/or PTRD

International. The personal data that the PTRD instructor is supposed to obtain from the

participant and keep in safe-keeping for a period of at least five (5) years shall include

the following:

4.2.10.1 Name, address and date of birth

4.2.10.2 Medical certification

4.2.10.3 Any previous training/certification, experience

4.2.10.4 The progress of the student

4.2.10.5 Records of certification once the training has been completed

4.3 General information about the PTRD to be provided to participants on all PTRD

Diver Training Programmes

4.3.1 The following information about the PTRD shall be made available to the participant

during the first class meeting:

4.3.1.1 The PTRD as an international body for the management of underwater sport;

4.3.1.2 The relationship between the School/Club/Country Partner and the PTRD;

4.3.1.3 The PTRD International Diver Certification System; and

4.3.1.4 The position of the specific PTRD Diver Training Programme in the PTRD

International Diver Certification System.

4.4 Career development information to be provided to participants on all PTRD Sport

Diver Training Programmes

4.4.1 The participant shall be informed of the following during the last class meeting:

4.4.1.1 The diving opportunities open to him once he has completed the specific PTRD Diver Training

Programme and obtained the relevant PTRD Diver Training Certification; and

4.4.1.2 The different PTRD Diver Training Programmes that he can attend once he has

completed the specific PTRD Diver Training Programme and obtained the relevant

PTRD Diver Training Certification.

4.5 Theoretical training parameters for PTRD Diver Training Programmes

4.5.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that theoretical training is conducted in an

environment that is free from significant distractions to learning, such as a

dedicated classroom. Furthermore, the training venue shall provide

participants with sufficient working facilities and training aids (e.g. writing

surfaces, reference materials, and computer, visual or audio materials) to

ensure that participants are able to understand the information being presented.

4.5.2 Each participant shall be provided with relevant training material, in either

printed or electronic format, that will assist him in mastering the required

theoretical concepts and principles.

4.6 Practical training parameters for PTRD Diver Training Programmes

4.6.1 Risk assessment

4.6.1.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that a risk assessment is conducted before

each confined and open water dive, and shall adopt procedures to ensure that all

risks are controlled as far as is reasonably possible. The following factors shall be

considered as part of this assessment taking into account the capability of participants:

4.6.1.1.1 water movement (e.g. current, wave action)

4.6.1.1.2 depth

4.6.1.1.3 underwater visibility

4.6.1.1.4 pollution

4.6.1.1.5 entry/exit methods

4.6.1.1.6 restricted zones

4.6.1.1.7 suitability of the site for the planned activities

4.6.1.1.8 emergency action plan

4.6.1.2 The PTRD Instructor shall have the right to prevent any participant from taking part in

the activity if following a risk assessment this is deemed to be in the best interest of the

participant and/or of the other participants.

4.6.2 Emergency equipment and procedures

4.6.2.1 Emergency equipment

4.6.2.1.1 For all locations where confined or open water activities take place the PTRD

Instructor shall ensure the availability of the following:

4.6.2.1.1.1 A first aid kit suitable for the planned diving activities;

4.6.2.1.1.2 An emergency oxygen unit with a capacity of delivering at least 15 liters/min of

pure oxygen for at least 20 min; and

4.6.2.1.1.3 A communication system suitable for alerting the Emergency Medical Services.

4.6.2.2 Emergency procedures

4.6.2.2.1 The PTRD Instructor shall ensure that, at each dive site where confined or open

water diving activities take place, a documented emergency plan comprising at least

the following information is available:

4.6.2.2.1.1 Procedures for casualty recovery, resuscitation and evacuation;

4.6.2.2.1.2 Procedures for the use of the emergency oxygen supply; and

4.6.2.2.1.3 Information about the nearest medical resources (including data about the

availability of the nearest hyperbaric recompression chamber).

4.6.3 Equipment

4.6.3.1 The minimum equipment to be worn by a PTRD Instructor and a participant while

conducting confined and open water SCUBA diving training for any PTRD Sport,

Specialty or Sport and Specialty Leadership training programme shall consist of the

prescribed diving equipment listed in Clause 2.1.42 of Chapter 1 whilst the minimum

equipment to be worn by a PTRD Instructor and a participant while conducting confined

and open water snorkel diving training shall consist of the prescribed diving equipment

listed in Clause 2.1.43 of Chapter 1. When appropriate for open water diving, the use of a

surface support-station with dive flag or a surface marker buoy is also encouraged.

4.6.3.2 In the event that the PTRD Instructor or the training facility by whom he is employed/on

whose behalf he is presenting the training programme is providing or renting any diving

equipment to the student the PTRD Instructor shall ensure:

4.6.3.2.1 That the diving equipment rented or provided to the student conforms to the relevant

International Standards as prescribed by legislation applicable in the country where

the training programme is being presented;

4.6.3.2.2 That the diving equipment rented to the student is subjected to an inspection prior

to delivery in order to ascertain that it is fully operational;

4.6.3.2.3 That all diving equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with the

manufacturer’s instructions, and records of maintenance, servicing and inspection is

kept;

4.6.3.2.4 That the student is advised on choosing the proper diving equipment taking into

account the envisaged diving activity and the qualification and needs of the student

(e.g. the proper fit of buoyancy control devices and suits); and

4.6.3.2.5 That the student should not use the equipment unsupervised as the use of the diving

equipment requires specific training.

4.6.4 Information to be provided

4.6.4.1 Prior to each confined and open water training session, participants shall have the safety

provisions identified to them by the PTRD Instructor, including the following:

4.6.4.1.1 The identity and role of any assistants or other staff

4.6.4.1.2 Emergency procedures

4.6.4.1.3 Buddy/group assignments

4.6.4.1.4 The conduct required of the participants

4.6.4.2 The following additional information shall be provided to the participants before any open water

training dive by the PTRD Instructor:

4.6.4.2.1 Information concerning the dive site, in particular hazards which could affect the safety of

the dive (e.g. under-water obstructions);

4.6.4.2.2 Arrangements concerning buddy teams and/or group size; and

4.6.4.2.3 Depth and/or time limitations.

4.7 Instructor/student ratio for practical training

4.7.1 The maximum number of students for practical sport, specialty and sport and

Specialty leadership diver training is eight (8) students per PTRD Instructor. Two (2)

additional students per certified PTRD Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of

twelve (12) students per PTRD Instructor. Although additional PTRD Dive Leaders

may be used, no additional students may be added to the responsibility of the individual

PTRD Instructor. These ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by

PTRD Country Partners and PDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other

factors in their respective countries.

4.7.2 The maximum number of students for technical diver and technical leadership

training is four (4) students per PTRD Instructor. Two (2) additional students per

certified PTRD Dive Leader may be added up to a maximum of six (6) students per

PTRD Instructor. Although additional PTRD Dive Leaders may be used, no additional

students may be added to the responsibility of the individual PTRD Instructor. These

ratios are considered maximum and can be reduced by PTRD Country Partners and

PDC’s to suit the environmental conditions or other factors in their respective

countries.

4.8 Confined water training

4.8.1 Prior to the first confined water training lesson the student shall undergo a

“Physical Conditioning and Watermanship Evaluation” as prescribed by the

Country Partner or PDC.

4.8.2 Participants shall receive their initial training of each snorkel diving and

SCUBA diving skill under the direct supervision of the PTRD Instructor.

Further skill development may continue under direct supervision of a certified

PTRD Dive Leader and indirect supervision of the Instructor. The PTRD

instructor shall conduct the final assessment to determine the satisfactory skill

performance of each student.

4.8.3 The participant shall be taught the skills prescribed by the specific PTRD Diver

Training Standard.

4.9 Open water training

4.9.1 Before participating in the open water training dives the participant shall have

demonstrated sufficient theoretical knowledge and snorkelling and/or SCUBA skills in

confined water to be able to perform the open water dives in the prevailing conditions.

4.9.2 An open water training dive shall comprise of the activities as provided for in the

definitions in Clause 2.1.48 of Chapter 1 and shall be directly supervised by a PTRD

Instructor.

4.9.3 Participants to be certified shall complete the prescribed number of open water training

dives under the direct supervision of a PTRD Instructor at the depths and for the

duration as prescribed by the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.

4.9.4 All under-water skills in open water shall be taught, directly supervised and

evaluated by a PTRD Instructor, who shall be in the water during each open water

training dive. The PTRD Instructor shall be in direct control of the students throughout

all open water training dives.

4.9.5 All open water training dives shall be conducted during normal daylight hours unless

otherwise specified by the specific PTRD Diver Training Standard.

4.9.6 No open water training dive shall be conducted in any overhead environment where

direct vertical access to the surface is not possible unless otherwise specified by the

specific PTRD Diver Training Standard. Open water training dives shall therefore

generally not be conducted in under-water caves, inside wrecks or below ice. (Aquatic

plants are not considered an overhead obstruction).

4.9.7 No more than three (3) open water training dives may be conducted on a given day.

4.9.8 The safe supervision of participants is the sole responsibility of the PTRD Instructor.

The PTRD Instructor shall lower the instructor/ participant ratio as provided for in

Clause 4.7 of Chapter 1 or as prescribed by his PTRD Country Partner or PDC where

environmental conditions are less than ideal, for example where underwater

visibility is poor or where there is significant water movement. The PTRD

Instructor may also use additional aids to improve safety such as ascent lines, surface

support stations or Instructional Assistants. Where Instructional Assistants are used

they shall comply with the requirements as prescribed by each PTRD Diver

Training Standard.

4.9.9 The PTRD Instructor shall limit the number of participants on open water training

dives so that either the PTRD Instructor or a PTRD Dive Leader is able to establish

physical contact with every participant at any time during the open water dive.

4.9.10 The PTRD Instructor shall cancel or abort the open water training dive if

environmental conditions, equipment problems or a participant’s physical or mental

condition make this necessary.

4.10 Right to withhold certification

4.10.1 The PTRD Instructor shall have the right to withhold the participant’s certification, if in

the opinion of the PTRD Instructor, the participant has not performed satisfactorily in

any one or more of the prescribed requirements for certification as described in the

relevant PTRD Diver Training Standard.

4.10.2 Quality Assurance for PTRD Sport Diver Training Programmes

4.10.3 Both PTRD International and a PTRD Country Partner shall have the right to institute any

such quality assurance measures that they deem appropriate in order to ensure that all

PTRD Diver Training is conducted throughout the world in accordance to the minimum

requirements of this Standard.

 5. PTRD Code of International Diving Signals

5.1 The PTRD Compulsory Hand signals are as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The PTRD Night Diving Signals are as follows

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.2 The PTRD Additional Hand Signals are as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. PTRD Delayed Surface Marker Buoy Colour Code System

6.1 The PTRD International DSMB Colour Code System is as follows:

Colour of DSMB Interpretation

Red Indicates the position of a diver that is ascending normally.

Yellow Indicates a diver in distress that requires assistance. The DSMB may

be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate) indicating the

required assistance(e.g. “More air”).

Yellow and Red The red DSMB is usually sent up first to indicate the position of a diver

and that he is ascending normally. The second DSMB, Yellow, is

deployed to indicate that the diver now needs assistance. Again the

DSMB may be accompanied by anattached note (i.e. underwater slate)

indicating the required assistance(e.g. “More air”).

6.2 It is important that only DSMB’s with the standard colour code system is used. Divers should not use

DSMB’s with mixed colours (i.e. red one side and yellow the other side) or any other colour than the

recommended colours as it may prohibit certain divers from reacting in an emergency as they are not

familiar with the colour code.

6.3 This standard does not apply to surface marker buoys (SMB’s) that are trailed on the surface by divers to

mark their position.

 

  1. The Ten Golden Rules of PTRD

7.1 The Ten Golden Rules of PTRD are as follows:

7.1.1 Never enter the water through reed, living corals or water plants;

7.1.2 Control your buoyancy;

7.1.3 Keep your distance from corals and other animals and do not stir up the sediment;

7.1.4 Take care where dropping anchor during boats dives;

7.1.5 Do not harass, touch or feed wild animals;

7.1.6 Do not spearfish (for fun), an do not buy or collect souvenirs such as corals and shells;

7.1.7 Be very careful when diving in caves. Bubbles and simple contact may destroy their

delicate life;

7.1.8 Keep dive sites clean;

7.1.9 Learn about the underwater life and avoid any destruction; and

7.1.10 Urge your buddies to follow these rules.

 

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